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The Fourier transform of a function * f*(

$$F\left[f\right](w)={\displaystyle \underset{-\infty}{\overset{\infty}{\int}}f(x){e}^{-iwx}dx},$$

and the inverse Fourier transform (IFT) as

$${F}^{-1}\left[f\right](x)=\frac{1}{2\pi}{\displaystyle \underset{-\infty}{\overset{\infty}{\int}}f(w){e}^{iwx}dw}.$$

This documentation refers to this formulation as the Fourier
transform of * f* with respect to

`fourier`

and `ifourier`

in
the reference pages for tables that show the Symbolic Math Toolbox™ commands
equivalent to various mathematical representations of the Fourier
and inverse Fourier transforms.For example, consider the Fourier transform of the Cauchy density
function, *( π(1 + x^{2}))^{–1}*:

syms x cauchy = 1/(pi*(1+x^2)); fcauchy = fourier(cauchy)

fcauchy = exp(-abs(w))

Plot `fcauchy`

. Before R2016a, use `ezplot`

instead
of `fplot`

.

fplot(fcauchy)

The Fourier transform is symmetric, since the original Cauchy density function is symmetric.

To recover the Cauchy density function from the Fourier transform,
call `ifourier`

:

finvfcauchy = ifourier(fcauchy)

finvfcauchy = 1/(pi*(x^2 + 1))

An application of the Fourier transform is the solution of ordinary and partial differential equations over the real line. Consider the deformation of an infinitely long beam resting on an elastic foundation with a shock applied to it at a point. A "real world" analogy to this phenomenon is a set of railroad tracks atop a road bed.

The shock could be induced by a pneumatic hammer blow.

The differential equation idealizing this physical setting is

$$\frac{{d}^{4}y}{d{x}^{4}}+\frac{k}{EI}y=\frac{1}{EI}\delta (x),\text{}-\infty x\infty .$$

Here, E represents elasticity of the beam (railroad track),
I is the "beam constant," and * k* is
the spring (road bed) stiffness. The shock force on the right side
of the differential equation is modeled by the Dirac Delta function
δ(

$$\underset{-\infty}{\overset{\infty}{\int}}f(x-y)\delta (y)dy=f(x)}.$$

A definition of the Dirac Delta function is

$$\delta (x)=\underset{n\to \infty}{\mathrm{lim}}n{\chi}_{(-1/2n,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1/2n)}(x),$$

where

$${\chi}_{(-1/2n,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1/2n)}(x)=\{\begin{array}{cc}1& \text{for}-\frac{1}{2n}x\frac{1}{2n}\\ 0& \text{otherwise}\text{.}\end{array}$$

Let * Y*(

`fourier(dirac(x), x, w)`

.
The Fourier transform turns differentiation into exponentiation, and,
in particular,$$F\left[\frac{{d}^{4}y}{d{x}^{4}}\right](w)={w}^{4}Y(w).$$

See a demonstration of this property:

syms w y(x) fourier(diff(y(x), x, 4), x, w)

ans = w^4*fourier(y(x), x, w)

Note that you can call the `fourier`

command
with one, two, or three inputs (see the reference pages for `fourier`

).
With a single input argument, `fourier(f)`

returns
a function of the default variable `w`

. If the input
argument is a function of `w`

, `fourier(f)`

returns
a function of `t`

. All inputs to `fourier`

must
be symbolic objects.

Applying the Fourier transform to the differential equation above yields the algebraic equation

$$\begin{array}{l}\text{\hspace{1em}}\left({w}^{4}+\frac{k}{EI}\right)Y(w)=\Delta (w),\\ \text{or}Y\left(w\right)=\Delta (w)G(w),\end{array}$$

where

$$G(w)=\frac{1}{{w}^{4}+\frac{k}{EI}}=F\left[g(x)\right](w)$$

for some function * g*(

$$g\left(x\right)={F}^{-1}[G\left(w\right)]\left(x\right)$$

The Symbolic Math Toolbox counterpart to the IFT is `ifourier`

.
This behavior of `ifourier`

parallels `fourier`

with
one, two, or three input arguments (see the reference pages for `ifourier`

).

Continuing with the solution of the differential equation, observe that the ratio

$$\frac{K}{EI}$$

is a relatively "large" number since the road
bed has a high stiffness constant * k* and a railroad
track has a low elasticity

$$\frac{K}{EI}=1024.$$

This is done to ease the computation of *F *^{–1}[* G*(

G = 1/(w^4 + 1024); g = ifourier(G, w, x); g = simplify(g)

g = (pi*exp(x*(- 4 - 4i))*(sign(x) + 1)*(1/1024 + 1i/1024) +... pi*exp(x*(- 4 + 4i))*(sign(x) + 1)*(1/1024 - 1i/1024) -... pi*exp(x*(4 - 4i))*(sign(x) - 1)*(1/1024 - 1i/1024) -... pi*exp(x*(4 + 4i))*(sign(x) - 1)*(1/1024 + 1i/1024))/(2*pi)

Since * Y* is the product of Fourier transforms,

$$y(x)=(\delta \ast g)(x)={\displaystyle \underset{-\infty}{\overset{\infty}{\int}}g(x-y)\delta (y)dy=g(x)}.$$

by the special property of the Dirac Delta function. To plot
this function, substitute the domain of * x* into

`subs`

command. The resulting graph shows
that the impact of a blow on a beam is highly localized; the greatest
deflection occurs at the point of impact and falls off sharply from
there.XX = -3:0.05:3; YY = double(subs(g, x, XX)); plot(XX, YY) title('Beam Deflection for a Point Shock') xlabel('x') ylabel('y(x)')

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