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# equationsToMatrix

Convert set of linear equations to matrix form

## Syntax

```[A,b] = equationsToMatrix(eqns,vars) [A,b] = equationsToMatrix(eqns) A = equationsToMatrix(eqns,vars) A = equationsToMatrix(eqns) ```

## Description

```[A,b] = equationsToMatrix(eqns,vars)``` converts `eqns` to the matrix form. Here `eqns` must be linear equations in `vars`.

```[A,b] = equationsToMatrix(eqns)``` converts `eqns` to the matrix form. Here `eqns` must be a linear system of equations in all variables that `symvar` finds in these equations.

`A = equationsToMatrix(eqns,vars)` converts `eqns` to the matrix form and returns only the coefficient matrix. Here `eqns` must be linear equations in `vars`.

`A = equationsToMatrix(eqns)` converts `eqns` to the matrix form and returns only the coefficient matrix. Here `eqns` must be a linear system of equations in all variables that `symvar` finds in these equations.

## Input Arguments

 `eqns` Vector of equations or equations separated by commas. Each equation is either a symbolic equation defined by the relation operator `==` or a symbolic expression. If you specify a symbolic expression (without the right side), `equationsToMatrix` assumes that the right side is 0. Equations must be linear in terms of `vars`. `vars` Independent variables of `eqns`. You can specify `vars` as a vector. Alternatively, you can list variables separating them by commas. Default: Variables determined by `symvar`

## Output Arguments

 `A` Coefficient matrix of the system of linear equations. `b` Vector containing the right sides of equations.

## Examples

Convert this system of linear equations to the matrix form. To get the coefficient matrix and the vector of the right sides of equations, assign the result to a vector of two output arguments:

```syms x y z [A, b] = equationsToMatrix([x + y - 2*z == 0, x + y + z == 1,... 2*y - z + 5 == 0], [x, y, z])```
```A = [ 1, 1, -2] [ 1, 1, 1] [ 0, 2, -1] b = 0 1 -5```

Convert this system of linear equations to the matrix form. Assigning the result of the `equationsToMatrix` call to a single output argument, you get the coefficient matrix. In this case, `equationsToMatrix` does not return the vector containing the right sides of equations:

```syms x y z A = equationsToMatrix([x + y - 2*z == 0, x + y + z == 1,... 2*y - z + 5 == 0], [x, y, z])```
```A = [ 1, 1, -2] [ 1, 1, 1] [ 0, 2, -1]```

Convert this linear system of equations to the matrix form without specifying independent variables. The toolbox uses `symvar` to identify variables:

```syms s t [A, b] = equationsToMatrix([s - 2*t + 1 == 0, 3*s - t == 10])```
```A = [ 1, -2] [ 3, -1] b = -1 10```

Find the vector of variables determined for this system by `symvar`:

`X = symvar([s - 2*t + 1 == 0, 3*s - t == 10])`
```X = [ s, t]```

Convert `X` to a column vector:

`X = X.'`
```X = s t```

Verify that `A`, `b`, and `X` form the original equations:

`A*X == b`
```ans = s - 2*t == -1 3*s - t == 10```

If the system is only linear in some variables, specify those variables explicitly:

```syms a s t [A, b] = equationsToMatrix([s - 2*t + a == 0, 3*s - a*t == 10], [t, s])```
```A = [ -2, 1] [ -a, 3] b = -a 10```

You also can specify equations and variables all together, without using vectors and simply separating each equation or variable by a comma. Specify all equations first, and then specify variables:

```syms x y [A, b] = equationsToMatrix(x + y == 1, x - y + 1, x, y)```
```A = [ 1, 1] [ 1, -1] b = 1 -1```

Now change the order of the input arguments as follows. `equationsToMatrix` finds the variable `y`, then it finds the expression ```x — y + 1```. After that, it assumes that all remaining arguments are equations, and stops looking for variables. Thus, `equationsToMatrix` finds the variable `y` and the system of equations ```x + y = 1, x = 0, x - y + 1 = 0```:

`[A, b] = equationsToMatrix(x + y == 1, x, x - y + 1, y)`
```A = 1 0 -1 b = 1 - x -x - x - 1```

If you try to convert a nonlinear system of equations, `equationsToMatrix` throws an error:

```syms x y [A, b] = equationsToMatrix(x^2 + y^2 == 1, x - y + 1, x, y)```
```Error using symengine (line 56) Cannot convert to matrix form because the system does not seem to be linear.```

## More About

collapse all

### Matrix Representation of a System of Linear Equations

A system of linear equations

`$\begin{array}{l}{a}_{11}{x}_{1}+{a}_{12}{x}_{2}+\dots +{a}_{1n}{x}_{n}={b}_{1}\\ {a}_{21}{x}_{1}+{a}_{22}{x}_{2}+\dots +{a}_{2n}{x}_{n}={b}_{2}\\ \cdots \\ {a}_{m1}{x}_{1}+{a}_{m2}{x}_{2}+\dots +{a}_{mn}{x}_{n}={b}_{m}\end{array}$`

can be represented as the matrix equation $A\cdot \stackrel{\to }{x}=\stackrel{\to }{b}$, where A is the coefficient matrix:

`$A=\left(\begin{array}{ccc}{a}_{11}& \dots & {a}_{1n}\\ ⋮& \ddots & ⋮\\ {a}_{m1}& \cdots & {a}_{mn}\end{array}\right)$`

and $\stackrel{\to }{b}$ is the vector containing the right sides of equations:

`$\stackrel{\to }{b}=\left(\begin{array}{c}{b}_{1}\\ ⋮\\ {b}_{m}\end{array}\right)$`

## Tips

• If you specify equations and variables all together, without dividing them into two vectors, specify all equations first, and then specify variables. If input arguments are not vectors, `equationsToMatrix` searches for variables starting from the last input argument. When it finds the first argument that is not a single variable, it assumes that all remaining arguments are equations, and therefore stops looking for variables.

## See Also

### Topics

#### Introduced in R2012b

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