!
, fact
Factorial function
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n !
fact(n
)
fact(n)
represents the factorial of
an integer.
The short hand call n!
is equivalent to fact(n)
.
If n
is a nonnegative integer smaller than
the value returned by Pref::autoExpansionLimit
(),
then an integer is returned. If n
is a numerical
value that is not an integer, then an error occurs. If n
is
a symbolic expression, then a symbolic call of fact
is
returned.
Use expand(n!)
to compute an explicit result
for large integers n
equal to or larger than Pref::autoExpansionLimit
().
The gamma
function
generalizes the factorial function to arbitrary complex arguments.
It satisfies gamma(n+1) = n!
for nonnegative integers n
.
Expressions involving symbolic fact
calls can be
rewritten by rewrite(expression, gamma)
. Cf. Example 3.
The operator !
can also be used in prefix
notation with an entirely different meaning: !command
is
equivalent to system("command")
.
Integer numbers are produced if the argument is a nonnegative integer:
fact(0), fact(5), fact(2^5)
A symbolic call is returned if the argument is a symbolic expression:
fact(n), fact(n  sin(x)), fact(3.0*n + I)
The calls fact(n)
and n!
are
equivalent:
5! = fact(5), fact(n^2 + 3)
Use gamma
(float(n+1))
rather
than float(fact(n))
for floatingpoint approximations
of large factorials. This avoids the costs of computing large integer
numbers:
float(fact(2^13)) = gamma(float(2^13 + 1))
The functions expand
, limit
, rewrite
and series
handle expressions
involving fact
:
expand(fact(n^2 + 4))
limit(fact(n)/exp(n), n = infinity)
rewrite(fact(2*n^2 + 1)/fact(n  1), gamma)
The Stirling formula is obtained as an asymptotic series:
series(fact(n), n = infinity, 3)

An arithmetical expression representing a nonnegative integer 
Arithmetical expression.
n