Create a function environment
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funcenv(f1
, <f2
>, <slotTable
>)
funcenv(f)
creates a function environment
from f
.
funcenv
serves for generating a function
environment of domain type DOM_FUNC_ENV
.
From a user's point of view, function environments are similar to procedures and can be called like any MuPAD^{®} function.
However, in contrast to simple procedures, a function environment
allows a tight integration into the MuPAD system. In particular,
standard system functions such as diff
, expand
, float
etc. can be told how to act on
symbolic function calls to a function environment.
For this, a function environment stores special function attributes
(slots) in an internal table. Whenever
an overloadable system function such as diff
, expand
, float
encounters an object of type DOM_FUNC_ENV
,
its searches the function environment for a corresponding slot. If
found, it calls the corresponding slot and returns the value produced
by the slot.
Slots can be incorporated into the function environment by creating
a table slotTable
and passing this to funcenv
,
when the function environment is created. Alternatively, the function slot
can be used to
add further slots to an existing function environment.
See Example 1 below for further information.
The first argument f1
of funcenv
determines
the evaluation of function calls. With f:= funcenv(f1)
,
the call f(x)
returns the result f1(x)
.
Note that calls of the form f:= funcenv(f)
are
possible (and, in fact, typical). This call embeds the procedure f
into
a function environment of the same name. The original procedure f
is
stored internally in the function environment f
.
After this call, further function attributes can be attached to f
via
the slot
function.
The second argument f2
of funcenv
determines
the screen output of symbolic function calls. Consider f:=
funcenv(f1, f2)
. If the call f(x)
returns
a symbolic function call f(x)
with 0th
operand f
, then f2
is called:
the return value of f2(f(x))
is used as the screen
output of f(x)
.
Note:
Beware: 
The third argument slotTable
of funcenv
is
a table containing function attributes
(slots). The table has to use strings
as indices to address system functions. E.g.,
slotTable := table("diff" = mydiff, "float" = myfloat): f := funcenv(f1, f2, slotTable):
attaches the slot functions mydiff
and myfloat
to f
.
They are called by the system functions diff
and float
, respectively, whenever they encounter
a symbolic expression f(x)
with 0th
operand f
. The internal slot table can be changed
or filled with additional function attributes via the function slot
.
If the first argument f1
of funcenv
is
itself a function environment, then the return value is a physical
copy of f1
.
The documentation of float
, print
, and slot
provides further
examples involving function environments.
We want to introduce a function f
that represents
a solution of the differential equation
.
First, we define a function f
, which returns any
call f(x)
symbolically:
f := proc(x) begin procname(args()) end_proc: f(x), f(3 + y)
Because of the differential equation
,
derivatives of f
can be rewritten in terms of f
.
How can we tell the MuPAD system to differentiate symbolic functions
calls such as f(x)
accordingly? For this, we first
have to embed the procedure f
into a function environment:
f := funcenv(f):
The function environment behaves like the original procedure:
f(x), f(3 + y)
System functions such as diff
still treat symbolic calls of f
as
calls to unknown functions:
diff(f(x + 3), x)
However, as a function environment, f
can
receive attributes that overload the system functions. The following slot
call attaches a
dummy "diff"
attribute to f
:
f::diff := mydiff: diff(2*f(x^2) + x, x)
We attach a more meaningful "diff"
attribute
to f
that is based on
.
Note that arbitrary calls diff(f(y), x1, x2, ..)
have
to be handled by this slot:
fdiff := proc(fcall) local y; begin y:= op(fcall, 1); (y + sin(y)*f(y))*diff(y, args(2..args(0))) end_proc: f := slot(f, "diff", fdiff):
Now, as far as differentiation is concerned, the function f
is
fully integrated into MuPAD:
diff(f(x), x), diff(f(x), x, x)
diff(sin(x)*f(x^2), x)
Since Taylor expansion around finite points only needs to evaluate
derivatives, also Taylor expansions of f
can be
computed:
taylor(f(x^2), x = 0, 9)
delete f, fdiff:
Suppose that you have defined a function f
that
may return itself symbolically, and you want such symbolic expressions
of the form f(x,...)
to be printed in a special
way. To this end, embed your proceduref
in
a function environment and supply an
output procedure as second argument to the corresponding funcenv
call.
Whenever an expression of the form f(x,...)
is
to be printed, the output procedure will be called with the arguments x,...
of
the expression:
f := funcenv(f, proc(x) begin if nops(x) = 2 then "f does strange things with its arguments ". expr2text(op(x, 1))." and ".expr2text(op(x,2)) else FAIL end end):
delete a, b: print(f(a, b)/2): print(f(a, b, c)/2):
delete f:

An arbitrary MuPAD object. Typically, a procedure. It handles the evaluation of a function call to the function environment. 

A procedure handling the screen output of symbolic function calls 

A table of function attributes (slots) 
Function environment of type DOM_FUNC_ENV
.