Light schemes for 3D graphics
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|Objects||Lighting Default Values|
Lighting determines the light scheme used
to illuminate a 3D scene.
With the default
Lighting = Automatic, several
light sources are set automatically to illuminate a 3D scene. Firstly,
there is ambient white light of type
LightIntensity = 0.25, LightColor
In addition, there are 6 directed lights of type
Their directions is given as follows: Think of the graphical scene
as being scaled to a standard box extending from -
1 to 1 in
each coordinate direction. In these scaled coordinates, the directed
lights shine into the directions given by the following
User-defined lights in the scene are ignored with
Lighting = Explicit, the light sources
Lighting = Automatic are switched off and
user-defined light sources are switched on.
searches for light objects set by the user. If
not specified and any kind of user-defined light object is found in
Lighting = Explicit is set automatically.
Lighting = Automatic and
= Explicit in the inspector,
one can easily compare the effect of the automatic lights with the
effect of ones own lights.
Lighting = None, the 3D shading algorithm
based on reflections of light emitted from light sources in the graphical
scene is switched off. This does not mean that the graphical scene
turns black: all objects are painted in the color they are defined
with. However, the scene will appear flat, because the depth of a
3D scene is created via the shading caused by different reflections
of light at different points of the scene.
The maximal number of lights that can be used to illuminate a 3D scene depends on the OpenGL® driver installed on the computer.
Some OpenGL drivers do not allow more than 6 light sources.
If there are more light sources in the scene, the surplus lights are
ignored. Lights that are switched off via
Visible = FALSE are
After activating a 3D plot (by clicking it), the “Help” menu contains an item “OpenGL Info” that provides information about the maximal number of lights.
In our first scene, no lights are specified. The default setting
= Automatic is used:
f := plot::Function3d(sin(x^2 + y^2), x = -2..2, y = -2..2): plot(f):
Lighting = Explicit, the
lights set by the user are used. Since the scene does not contain
any lights, the scene turns dark:
plot(f, Lighting = Explicit):
Lights are specified in the next scene. The setting
= Explicit is used automatically:
Light0 := plot::AmbientLight(0.25): Light1 := plot::DistantLight([ 1, 0, 1], [0, 0, 0], 0.3): Light2 := plot::DistantLight([-1, 0, 1], [0, 0, 0], 0.3): Light3 := plot::DistantLight([ 0, 1, 1], [0, 0, 0], 0.3): Light4 := plot::DistantLight([ 0, -1, 1], [0, 0, 0], 0.3): plot(f, Light0, Light1, Light2, Light3, Light4):
We switch off the parameter lines:
plot(f, Light0, Light1, Light2, Light3, Light4, XLinesVisible = FALSE, YLinesVisible = FALSE, Axes = None):
In the next scene, the 3D shading model is switched off via
plot(f, Lighting = None):
In the previous picture, the axes box and the mesh lines are switched on and create a certain 3D effect. After switching the box and the mesh lines off, the scene appears flat when rendered without shading:
plot(f, Lighting = None, Axes = None, XLinesVisible = FALSE, YLinesVisible = FALSE):
delete f, Light0, Light1, Light2, Light3, Light4: