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Gaussian elimination

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linalg::gaussElim(A, <All>)


linalg::gaussElim(A) performs Gaussian elimination on the matrix A to reduce A to a similar matrix in upper row echelon form.

A row echelon form of A returned by linalg::gaussElim is not unique. See linalg::gaussJordan for computing the reduced row echelon form.

The component ring R of A must be an integral domain, i.e., a domain of category Cat::IntegralDomain.

If R is a field, i.e., a domain of category Cat::Field, ordinary Gaussian elimination is used. Otherwise, linalg::gaussElim applies fraction-free Gaussian elimination to A.

linalg::gaussElim serves as an interface function for the method "gaussElim" of the matrix domain of A, i.e., one may call A::dom::gaussElim(A) directly instead of linalg::gaussElim(A, All)

Refer to the help page of Dom::Matrix for details about the computation strategy of linalg::gaussElim.


Example 1

We apply Gaussian elimination to the following matrix:

A := Dom::Matrix(Dom::Rational)( 
  [[1, 2, 3, 4], [-1, 0, 1, 0], [3, 5, 6, 9]] 

which reduces A to the following row echelon form:


Example 2

We apply Gaussian elimination to the matrix:

B := Dom::Matrix(Dom::Integer)( 
  [[1, 2, -1], [1, 0, 1], [2, -1, 4]] 

and get the following result:

linalg::gaussElim(B, All)

We see that rank(B) = 3 and .



A matrix of a domain of category Cat::Matrix



Returns a list where T is a row echelon form of A and {j1, …, jr} is the set of characteristic column indices of T.

If A is not square, then the value FAIL is given instead of .

Return Values

a matrix of the same domain type as A, or the list [T, rank(A), det(A), {j_1,dots,j_r}] when the option All is given (see below).


Let T = (ti, j)1 ≤ im, 1 ≤ jn be an m×n matrix. Then T is a matrix in an upper row echelon form, if r ∈ {0, 1, …, n} and indices j1, j2, …, jr ∈ {1, …, n} exist with:

  1. j1 < j2 < ··· < jr.

  2. For each i ∈ {1, …, r}: ti, 1 = ti, 2 = ··· = ti, ji - 1 = 0.

  3. For each i ∈ {r + 1, …, m}: ti, j = 0 for each j ∈ {1, …, n}.

The indices j1, j2, …, jr are the characteristic column indices of the matrix T.

See Also

MuPAD Functions

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