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The Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind

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orthpoly::chebyshev1(n, x)


orthpoly::chebyshev1(n,x) computes the value of the n-th degree Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind at the point x.

These polynomials have integer coefficients.

Evaluation is fast and numerically stable for real floating point values x from the interval [- 1.0, 1.0]. See Example 2.

orthpoly::chebyshev2 implements the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind.


Example 1

Polynomial expressions are returned if identifiers or indexed identifiers are specified:

orthpoly::chebyshev1(2, x)

orthpoly::chebyshev1(3, x[1])

Using arithmetical expressions as input, the "values" of these polynomials are returned:

orthpoly::chebyshev1(2, 3 + 2*I)

orthpoly::chebyshev1(3, exp(x[1]+2))

"Arithmetical expressions" include numbers:

orthpoly::chebyshev1(2, sqrt(2)), 
orthpoly::chebyshev1(3, 8 + I),
orthpoly::chebyshev1(1000, 0.3)

If the degree of the polynomial is a variable or expression, then orthpoly::chebyshev1 returns itself symbolically:

orthpoly::chebyshev1(n, x)

Example 2

If a floating-point value is desired, then a direct call such as

orthpoly::chebyshev1(200, 0.3)

is appropriate and yields a correct result. One should not evaluate the symbolic polynomial at a floating-point value, because this may be numerically unstable:

T200 := orthpoly::chebyshev1(200, x):
DIGITS := 10: evalp(T200, x = 0.3)

This result is caused by numerical round-off. Also with increased DIGITS only a few leading digits are correct:

DIGITS := 20: evalp(T200, x = 0.3)

delete DIGITS, T200:



A nonnegative integer or an arithmetical expression representing a nonnegative integer: the degree of the polynomial.


An indeterminate or an arithmetical expression. An indeterminate is either an identifier (of domain type DOM_IDENT) or an indexed identifier (of type "_index").

Return Values

The value of the Chebyshev polynomial at point x is returned as an arithmetical expression. If n is an arithmetical expression, then orthpoly::chebyshev1 returns itself symbolically.


The Chebyshev polynomials are given by T(n, x) = cos(nacos(x)) for real x ∈ [- 1, 1]. This representation is used by orthpoly::chebyshev1 for floating-point values in this range.

These polynomials satisfy the recursion formula

with T(0, x) = 1 and T(1, x) = x.

They are orthogonal on the interval [- 1, 1] with respect to the weight function .

T(n, x) is a special Jacobi polynomial:


See Also

MuPAD Functions

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