xor, _xor

Logical exclusive-or

Use only in the MuPAD Notebook Interface.

This functionality does not run in MATLAB.


b1 xor b2
_xor(b1, b2, …)


b1 xor b2 represents the exclusive logical ‘or' of the Boolean expressions b1, b2.

MuPAD® uses a three state logic with the Boolean constants TRUE, FALSE, and UNKNOWN. These are processed as follows:

The operator xor is defined as follows: a xor b is equivalent to (a or b) and not (a and b).

Boolean expressions may be composed of these constants as well as of arbitrary arithmetical expressions. Typically, equations such as x = y and inequalities such as x <> y, x < y, x <= y etc. are used to construct Boolean expressions.

_xor(b1, b2, ...) is equivalent to b1 xor b2 xor .... This expression represents TRUE if an odd number of operands evaluate to TRUE and the others evaluate to FALSE. It represents FALSE if an even number of operands evaluate to TRUE and the others evaluate to FALSE. It represents UNKNOWN if at least one operand evaluates to UNKNOWN.

Combinations of the constants TRUE, FALSE, UNKNOWN inside a Boolean expression are simplified automatically. However, symbolic Boolean subexpressions, equalities, and inequalities are not evaluated and simplified by logical operators. Use bool to evaluate such expressions to one of the Boolean constants. Note, however, that bool can evaluate inequalities x < y, x <= y etc. only if they are composed of numbers of type Type::Real. Cf. Example 2.

Use simplify with the option logic to simplify expressions involving symbolic Boolean subexpressions. Cf. Example 3.

The precedences of the logical operators are as follows: The operator not is stronger binding than and, i.e, not b1 and b2 = (not b1) and b2. The operator and is stronger binding than xor, i.e., b1 and b2 or b3 = (b1 and b2) xor b3. The operator xor is stronger binding than or, i.e., b1 xor b2 or b3 = (b1 xor b2) or b3. The operator or is stronger binding than ==>, i.e., b1 or b2 ==> b3 = (b1 or b2) ==> b3. The operator ==> is stronger binding than <=>, i.e., b1 ==> b2 <=> b3 = (b1 ==> b2) <=> b3.

If in doubt, use brackets to make sure that the expression is parsed as desired.

In the conditional context of if, repeat, and while statements, Boolean expressions are evaluated via "lazy evaluation" (see _lazy_and, _lazy_or). In any other context, all operands are evaluated.


Example 1

Combinations of the Boolean constants TRUE, FALSE, and UNKNOWN are simplified automatically to one of these constants:

TRUE and not (FALSE or TRUE)




Example 2

Logical operators simplify subexpressions that evaluate to the constants TRUE, FALSE, UNKNOWN.

b1 or b2 and TRUE

FALSE or ((not b1) and TRUE)

b1 and (b2 or FALSE) and UNKNOWN

FALSE or (b1 and UNKNOWN) or x < 1

TRUE and ((b1 and FALSE) or (b1 and TRUE))

However, equalities and inequalities are not evaluated:

(x = x) and (1 < 2) and (2 < 3) and (3 < 4)

Boolean evaluation is enforced via bool:


Example 3

Expressions involving symbolic Boolean subexpressions are not simplified by and, or, not. Simplification has to be requested explicitly via the function simplify:

(b1 and b2) or (b1 and (not b2)) and (1 < 2)

simplify(%, logic)

Example 4

The Boolean functions _and and _or accept arbitrary sequences of Boolean expressions. The following call uses isprime to check whether all elements of the given set are prime:

set := {1987, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2001}: 
_and(isprime(i) $ i in set)

The following call checks whether at least one of the numbers is prime:

_or(isprime(i) $ i in set)

delete set:


b1, b2, …

Boolean expressions

Return Values

Boolean expression.

Overloaded By

b, b_1, b_2

See Also

MuPAD Functions

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