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Operations on symbolic expressions often involve finding subexpressions
and replacing them with values or with other subexpressions. MuPAD^{®} provides
the following functions for this task:

`evalAt` replaces
specified objects in the expression tree with the specified values
or subexpressions, and then evaluates the expression. This function
replaces only entire branches of expression trees. It cannot replace
a part of the branch, for example, two terms in the sum of three terms:

a*(b + c) | b = d, a*(b + c) | b + c = d, a*(b + c + 1) | b + c = d

`evalAt` replaces
only free identifiers:

int(f(x), x = 0..1) + f(x) | x = 100

`subs` replaces
specified objects in the expression tree with the specified values
or subexpressions. This function cannot replace a part of the branch
in the expression tree:

subs(a*(b + c), b + c = d), subs(a*(b + c + 1), b + c = d)

After substitution, `subs` does
not evaluate the resulting expression (although it can simplify the
expression). You can enforce evaluation of the modified subexpressions
by using the `EvalChanges` option:

subs(ln(x), x = E), subs(ln(x), x = E, EvalChanges)

`subs` replaces
both free and dependent identifiers. In some cases, replacing dependent
identifiers can cause invalid results:

subs(int(f(x), x = 0..1) + f(x), x = 100)

`subsex` analyzes
associative system operators and can replace part of the branch in
the expression tree:

subsex(a*(b + c), b + c = d), subsex(a*(b + c + 1), b + c = d)

`subsex` does
not evaluate the resulting expression:

subsex(ln(x + a + 1), x + a = E - 1)

Use `eval` to
evaluate results returned by `subsex`:

eval(%)

`subsop` replaces
only entire branches in the expression tree of an expression, the
same way as `subs`.
When using `subsop`,
you must know the position (index) of the branch inside the expression
in internal order that might differ from the output order used to
represent the expression on screen. To find the internal index of
a particular subexpression, use the `op` function:

ex := sin(a*x + b) + cos(a*x + b): op(ex);

op(ex, 2);

op(ex, [2, 1]);

op(ex, [2, 1, 2]);

op(ex, [2, 1, 2, 1])

Now you can use `subsop` to
replace the parameter `a` with some value. For example,
replace it with the value 3:

subsop(ex, [2, 1, 2, 1] = 3)

`prog::find` helps
you find all occurrences of a specific value in the expression. For
example, find all sums in this expression:

ex := (x + 1)/(x^2 + 2*x - 2) - 1/x + 1/(x + 1): pos := [prog::find(ex, hold(_plus))]; map(pos, p -> op(ex, p)); map(pos, p -> op(ex, p[1..-2]))

You also can find all subexpressions of a particular type (for
example, all Bessel functions or all branches not containing `x`),
execute some code for these subexressions and replace them with the
return value of that code. For this task, use the `misc::maprec` function.

Suppose you want to rewrite all terms that contain the sine
and tangent functions in terms of cosine functions. (In this example,
do not use *sin*(*x*)^{2} =
1 - *cos*(*x*)^{2} and
similar identities.) First, create the functions `sin2cos` and `tan2cos` that
rewrite expressions in terms of the cosine function. These functions
access the operands of the sine and tangent functions using `op(ex)`:

sin2cos := ex -> cos(op(ex) - PI/2): tan2cos := ex -> cos(op(ex) - PI/2)/cos(op(ex)):

Now you can use these functions when replacing all occurrences
of sine and tangent functions in an expression. To replace subexpressions
of the original expression, use `misc::maprec`. The `misc::maprec` function uses the syntax `misc::maprec(expression,
selector = replacement)`, where:

`expression`is the original expression (subexpressions of which you want to replace).`selector`is the selection criterion (for example, a set of types of subexpressions that you want to replace).`replacement`is the procedure that you want to use to replace subexpressions of the original expression.

MuPAD applies `misc::maprec` recursively
to all subexpressions of the original expression. For example, in
this call `misc::maprec` replaces
all occurrences of `sin` and `tan`,
including the sine function in `tan(sin(x))`:

misc::maprec(sin(x) + tan(x^2) - tan(sin(x)), {"sin"} = sin2cos, {"tan"} = tan2cos)

Besides data types or types of expressions, such as `"sin"` or `"tan"`,
you can use procedures to represent selection criteria in `misc::maprec`. In this
example, the selection criterion of `misc::maprec` is the procedure `ex
-> bool(freeIndets(ex) = {})` that excludes free identifiers
and selects all constants of an expression. Using the procedure `f` as
a `replacement`, `misc::maprec` replaces all nonrational
constants of an expression with new identifiers:

f := proc(x) option remember; begin if testtype(x, Type::Rational) then x else genident(); end_if; end: misc::maprec(a = 5*b + PI*sqrt(2)*c + PI, (ex -> bool(freeIndets(ex) = {})) = f)

`option remember` in `f` ensures
that constants appearing multiple times always get the same identifier.
Moreover, you can access the remember table of the procedure `f` and
select which substitutions you want to make:

select([op(op(f,5))], _not@bool)

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