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The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) allows you to analyze the temporal evolution of the frequency content of a signal or time series. The CWT can be used to detect time-localized events and scale-localized components. When the Fourier transform of a wavelet satisfies certain properties, it is possible to invert the CWT by integrating only over scales. Accordingly, Fourier transform based CWT and inverse CWT algorithms with select wavelets enable you to reconstruct a time and scale-localized approximation to a signal.

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Step 1: Detection of System Anomaly Using the CWT Step 2: Reconstruction of System Anomaly Signature in the Time Domain |

**Step 1: Detection of System Anomaly Using the CWT**

The data analyzed in this example were generously provided by the oil company Total. These data are also used in the wavelet coherence example. In that example, the wavelet coherence between signals recorded at different sensor locations enables you to detect a system anomaly indicated by the appearance of an oscillatory component. Since it is possible to detect this component by examining data recorded at an individual sensor, we restrict our attention here to the signal at sensor 1. Analyzing the time series recorded at sensor 1 with the CWT reveals the quasi-periodic signal indicative of a system anomaly.

% Define the signal to analyze. clear load sensor1; long = 4000; first = 5000; last = first + long-1; indices = (first:last); dt = 1; signal = sensor1(indices); s1{1} = signal; s1{2} = dt;

Obtain the CWT over scales 1 to 50 in 0.1 increments using the analytic Morlet wavelet, `'morl'`. With the bandwidth and center frequency settings used in the wavelet coherence example, the oscillatory behavior in the sensor data was observed at approximately scale 15. This scale translates approximately to scale 6 with the analytic Morlet wavelet used here. Define the parameters and perform the CWT analysis.

scales = 1:0.1:50; wname = 'morl'; par = 6; WAV = {wname,par}; cwt_s1_lin = cwtft(s1,'scales',scales,'wavelet',WAV,'plot');

The figure shows the CWT decomposition. The middle figure panel in the left column contains a plot of the CWT moduli revealing strong components around scale 6 over approximately the first 2000 points.

Another way to compute the CWT coefficients is to use the logarithmically-spaced scales provided by the default values.

```
cwt_s1_pow = cwtft(s1,'plot');
```

The output `cwt_s1_pow` is a structure array which contains six fields: the CWT coefficients (`cfs`), the vector of scales, the angular frequencies used in the Fourier transform in radians/sample (`omega`), the mean of the signal (`meanSIG`), the sampling period (`dt`), and the wavelet (`wav`). You can use `icwtft` to reconstruct the original signal based on the CWT coefficients.

rec_s1_pow = icwtft(cwt_s1_pow);

Utilizing a subset of the CWT coefficients, you can reconstruct an approximation to the original signal. The next example illustrates this for the oscillatory component in the sensor 1 data. As a preliminary step, determine the scale containing the greatest percentage of the signal energy.

% Compute the energy distribution over scales. cfs = cwt_s1_lin.cfs; energy = sum(abs(cfs),2); percentage = 100*energy/sum(energy); % Detect the scale of greatest energy. [maxpercent,maxScaleIDX] = max(percentage) figure; plot(percentage,'.-r'); hold on; plot(maxScaleIDX,maxpercent,'.k','Markersize',20) xlabel('Indices of Scales') ylabel('Percentage of energy'); axis tight grid % The scale of greatest energy is given by: scaMaxEner = scales(maxScaleIDX)

maxpercent = 0.3589 maxScaleIDX = 41 scaMaxEner = 5

**Step 2: Reconstruction of System Anomaly Signature in the Time Domain**

An interesting use of the analysis-reconstruction process involves modifying the wavelet coefficients between analysis and reconstruction. This is routinely done for denoising or compression applications using the discrete wavelet transform. Because the Fourier transform based CWT enables us to efficiently implement an inverse transform, it is possible to extend this selective reconstruction to the CWT. Using this technique, we can obtain a clearer picture of the system anomaly.

```
cwt_anomaly = cwt_s1_pow;
% Find the index of logarithmic scale detecting the anomaly.
[valMin,anomaly_index_scales] = min(abs(cwt_s1_pow.scales-scaMaxEner))
```

valMin = 0.5117 anomaly_index_scales = 4

anomaly_cfs = cwt_s1_pow.cfs(anomaly_index_scales,:); newCFS = zeros(size(cwt_s1_pow.cfs)); newCFS(anomaly_index_scales,:) = anomaly_cfs; cwt_anomaly.cfs = newCFS; % Reconstruction from the modified structure. anomaly = icwtft(cwt_anomaly,'plot','signal',s1);

In this example only the reconstructed signal is of interest. Plots of the CWT coefficients are not informative because only a single scale contains nonzero coefficients. To obtain a better view of the anomaly, you can perform a horizontal zoom for all axes of the figure.

ax = findobj(gcf,'type','axes','tag',''); set(ax,'Xlim',[250 500]);

The selective reconstruction process may be done more directly using the IdxSc name-value pair in the `icwtft` function.

icwtft(cwt_anomaly,'plot','signal',s1,'IdxSc',anomaly_index_scales); ax = findobj(gcf,'type','axes','tag',''); set(ax,'Xlim',[250 500]);

**Step 3: A Second Reconstruction of System Anomaly Signature**

Continuous wavelet analysis greatly facilitates the detection of the quasi-periodic component indicative of a system anomaly. In addition, the inverse CWT algorithm enables you to reconstruct a time and scale-localized approximation to the component based on selected coefficients. The Fourier transform based CWT and inverse CWT algorithms for logarithmic scales are described in Torrence & Compo, 1998. Sun, 2010 proposes an inversion formula for linearly-spaced scales. The algorithm with linearly-spaced scales is less efficient than its logarithmically-spaced counterpart because more scales are required for an accurate reconstruction. Nevertheless, this algorithm is experimentally useful and complements the algorithm with logarithmically-spaced scales. To end this example, we illustrate the use of selective linearly-spaced scales for signal approximation.

% First step for building the new structure corresponding to the anomaly. cwt_anomaly = cwt_s1_lin; % Choose a vector of scales centered on the most energetic scale. dScale = 5; anomaly_index_scales = (maxScaleIDX-dScale:maxScaleIDX+dScale); anomaly_cfs = cwt_s1_lin.cfs(anomaly_index_scales,:); newCFS = zeros(size(cwt_s1_lin.cfs)); newCFS(anomaly_index_scales,:) = anomaly_cfs; cwt_anomaly.cfs = newCFS; % Reconstruction from the modified structure. anomaly = icwtlin(cwt_anomaly,'plot');

To get a better view of the anomaly, you can perform a horizontal zoom for all axes of the figure.

ax = findobj(gcf,'type','axes','tag',''); set(ax,'Xlim',[250 500]);

The selective reconstruction process may be done more directly using the IdxSc name-value pair in the `icwtlin` function.

icwtlin(cwt_anomaly,'plot','signal',s1,'IdxSc',anomaly_index_scales); ax = findobj(gcf,'type','axes','tag',''); set(ax,'Xlim',[250 500]);

This example shows how to use continuous wavelet analysis to detect time and scale-localized components in the time-scale plane. Using Fourier transform based continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and inverse CWT algorithms, the example illustrates how to reconstruct a signal approximation based on scales identified in the analysis.

Torrence, C. & Compo, G.C.

*A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis*, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 61-78, 1998.Sun, W.

*Convergence of Morlet's Reconstruction Formula*, Preprint, 2010.

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