# Documentation

## Two-Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Analysis

This section takes you through the features of two-dimensional discrete wavelet analysis using the Wavelet Toolbox™ software. The toolbox provides these functions for image analysis. For more information, see the function reference pages.

 Note   In this section the presentation and examples use two-dimensional arrays corresponding to indexed image representations. However, the functions described are also available when using truecolor images, which are represented by `m`-by-`n`-by-3 arrays of `uint8`. For more information on image formats, see Wavelets: Working with Images.

### Analysis-Decomposition Functions

Function Name

Purpose

`dwt2`

Single-level decomposition

`wavedec2`

Decomposition

`wmaxlev`

Maximum wavelet decomposition level

### Synthesis-Reconstruction Functions

Function Name

Purpose

`idwt2`

Single-level reconstruction

`waverec2`

Full reconstruction

`wrcoef2`

Selective reconstruction

`upcoef2`

Single reconstruction

### Decomposition Structure Utilities

Function Name

Purpose

`detcoef2`

Extraction of detail coefficients

`appcoef2`

Extraction of approximation coefficients

`upwlev2`

Recomposition of decomposition structure

### Denoising and Compression

Function Name

Purpose

`ddencmp`

Provide default values for denoising and compression

`wbmpen`

Penalized threshold for wavelet 1-D or 2-D denoising

`wdcbm2`

Thresholds for wavelet 2-D using Birgé-Massart strategy

`wdencmp`

Wavelet denoising and compression

`wthrmngr`

Threshold settings manager

In this section, you'll learn

• How to load an image

• How to analyze an image

• How to perform single-level and multilevel image decompositions and reconstructions (command line only)

• How to use Square and Tree mode features (GUI only)

• How to zoom in on detail (GUI only)

• How to compress an image

### Two-Dimensional Analysis — Command Line

In this example we'll show how you can use two-dimensional wavelet analysis to compress an image efficiently without sacrificing its clarity.

 Note   Instead of directly using `image(I)` to visualize the image `I`, we use` image(wcodemat(I))`, which displays a rescaled version of` I `leading to a clearer presentation of the details and approximations (see `wcodemat` reference page).

From the MATLAB® prompt, type

```load wbarb; whos ```
NameSizeBytesClass
`X``256x256``524288``double array`
`map``192x3``4608``double array`

2. Display the image. Type

```image(X); colormap(map); colorbar; ```

3. Convert an indexed image to a grayscale image.

If the colormap is smooth, the wavelet transform can be directly applied to the indexed image; otherwise the indexed image should be converted to grayscale format. For more information, see Wavelets: Working with Images.

Since the colormap is smooth in this image, you can now perform the decomposition.

4. Perform a single-level wavelet decomposition.

To perform a single-level decomposition of the image using the `bior3.7` wavelet, type

```[cA1,cH1,cV1,cD1] = dwt2(X,'bior3.7'); ```

This generates the coefficient matrices of the level-one approximation (`cA1`) and horizontal, vertical and diagonal details (`cH1`,`cV1`,`cD1`, respectively).

5. Construct and display approximations and details from the coefficients.

To construct the level-one approximation and details (`A1`, `H1`, `V1`, and `D1`) from the coefficients `cA1`, `cH1`, `cV1`, and `cD1`, type

```A1 = upcoef2('a',cA1,'bior3.7',1); H1 = upcoef2('h',cH1,'bior3.7',1); V1 = upcoef2('v',cV1,'bior3.7',1); D1 = upcoef2('d',cD1,'bior3.7',1); ```

or

```sx = size(X); A1 = idwt2(cA1,[],[],[],'bior3.7',sx); H1 = idwt2([],cH1,[],[],'bior3.7',sx); V1 = idwt2([],[],cV1,[],'bior3.7',sx); D1 = idwt2([],[],[],cD1,'bior3.7',sx); ```

To display the results of the level 1 decomposition, type

```colormap(map); subplot(2,2,1); image(wcodemat(A1,192)); title('Approximation A1') subplot(2,2,2); image(wcodemat(H1,192)); title('Horizontal Detail H1') subplot(2,2,3); image(wcodemat(V1,192)); title('Vertical Detail V1') subplot(2,2,4); image(wcodemat(D1,192)); title('Diagonal Detail D1') ```

6. Regenerate an image by single-level Inverse Wavelet Transform.

To find the inverse transform, type

```Xsyn = idwt2(cA1,cH1,cV1,cD1,'bior3.7'); ```

This reconstructs or synthesizes the original image from the coefficients of the level 1 approximation and details.

7. Perform a multilevel wavelet decomposition.

To perform a level 2 decomposition of the image (again using the `bior3.7` wavelet), type

```[C,S] = wavedec2(X,2,'bior3.7'); ```

where `X` is the original image matrix, and 2 is the level of decomposition.

The coefficients of all the components of a second-level decomposition (that is, the second-level approximation and the first two levels of detail) are returned concatenated into one vector, `C`. Argument `S` is a bookkeeping matrix that keeps track of the sizes of each component.

8. Extract approximation and detail coefficients.

To extract the level 2 approximation coefficients from `C`, type

```cA2 = appcoef2(C,S,'bior3.7',2); ```

To extract the first- and second-level detail coefficients from `C`, type

```cH2 = detcoef2('h',C,S,2); cV2 = detcoef2('v',C,S,2); cD2 = detcoef2('d',C,S,2); cH1 = detcoef2('h',C,S,1); cV1 = detcoef2('v',C,S,1); cD1 = detcoef2('d',C,S,1); ```

or

```[cH2,cV2,cD2] = detcoef2('all',C,S,2); [cH1,cV1,cD1] = detcoef2('all',C,S,1); ```

where the first argument (`'``h``'`, `'``v``'`, or `'``d``'`) determines the type of detail (horizontal, vertical, diagonal) extracted, and the last argument determines the level.

9. Reconstruct the Level 2 approximation and the Level 1 and 2 details.

To reconstruct the level 2 approximation from `C`, type

```A2 = wrcoef2('a',C,S,'bior3.7',2); ```

To reconstruct the level 1 and 2 details from `C`, type

```H1 = wrcoef2('h',C,S,'bior3.7',1); V1 = wrcoef2('v',C,S,'bior3.7',1); D1 = wrcoef2('d',C,S,'bior3.7',1); H2 = wrcoef2('h',C,S,'bior3.7',2); V2 = wrcoef2('v',C,S,'bior3.7',2); D2 = wrcoef2('d',C,S,'bior3.7',2); ```
10. Display the results of a multilevel decomposition.

 Note   With all the details involved in a multilevel image decomposition, it makes sense to import the decomposition into the Wavelet 2-D graphical tool in order to more easily display it. For information on how to do this, see Loading Decompositions.

To display the results of the level 2 decomposition, type

```colormap(map); subplot(2,4,1);image(wcodemat(A1,192)); title('Approximation A1') subplot(2,4,2);image(wcodemat(H1,192)); title('Horizontal Detail H1') subplot(2,4,3);image(wcodemat(V1,192)); title('Vertical Detail V1') subplot(2,4,4);image(wcodemat(D1,192)); title('Diagonal Detail D1') subplot(2,4,5);image(wcodemat(A2,192)); title('Approximation A2') subplot(2,4,6);image(wcodemat(H2,192)); title('Horizontal Detail H2') subplot(2,4,7);image(wcodemat(V2,192)); title('Vertical Detail V2') subplot(2,4,8);image(wcodemat(D2,192)); title('Diagonal Detail D2') ```
11. Reconstruct the original image from the multilevel decomposition.

To reconstruct the original image from the wavelet decomposition structure, type

```X0 = waverec2(C,S,'bior3.7'); ```

This reconstructs or synthesizes the original image from the coefficients `C` of the multilevel decomposition.

12. Compress the image and display it.

To compress the original image `X`, use the `ddencmp` command to calculate the default parameters and the `wdencmp` command to perform the actual compression. Type

```[thr,sorh,keepapp]= ddencmp('cmp','wv',X); [Xcomp,CXC,LXC,PERF0,PERFL2] = ... wdencmp('gbl',C,S,'bior3.7',2,thr,sorh,keepapp); ```

Note that we pass in to `wdencmp` the results of the decomposition (`C` and `S`) we calculated in 7step 7. We also specify the `bior3.7` wavelets, because we used this wavelet to perform the original analysis. Finally, we specify the global thresholding option `'``gbl``'`. See `ddencmp` and `wdencmp` reference pages for more information about the use of these commands.

To view the compressed image side by side with the original, type

```colormap(map); subplot(121); image(X); title('Original Image'); axis square subplot(122); image(Xcomp); title('Compressed Image'); axis square ```

```PERF0 PERF0 = 49.8076 PERFL2 PERFL2 = 99.9817 ```

These returned values tell, respectively, what percentage of the wavelet coefficients was set to zero and what percentage of the image's energy was preserved in the compression process.

Note that, even though the compressed image is constructed from only about half as many nonzero wavelet coefficients as the original, there is almost no detectable deterioration in the image quality.

### Interactive Two-Dimensional Wavelet Analysis

In this section we explore the same image as in the previous section, but we use the graphical interface tools to analyze the image.

1. Start the 2-D Wavelet Analysis Tool.

From the MATLAB prompt, type

```wavemenu ```

The Wavelet Tool Main Menu appears.

Click the Wavelet 2-D menu item. The discrete wavelet analysis tool for two-dimensional image data appears.

When the Load Image dialog box appears, select the MAT-file `wbarb.mat`, which is in the MATLAB folder `toolbox/wavelet/wavedemo`. Click the OK button.

The image is loaded into the Wavelet 2-D tool.

3. Analyze the image.

Using the Wavelet and Level menus located to the upper right, determine the wavelet family, the wavelet type, and the number of levels to be used for the analysis.

For this analysis, select the `bior3.7` wavelet at level 2.

Click the Analyze button. After a pause for computation, the Wavelet 2-D tool displays its analysis.

Using Square Mode Features

By default, the analysis appears in "Square Mode." This mode includes four different displays. In the upper left is the original image. Below that is the image reconstructed from the various approximations and details. To the lower right is a decomposition showing the coarsest approximation coefficients and all the horizontal, diagonal, and vertical detail coefficients. Finally, the visualization space at the top right displays any component of the analysis that you want to look at more closely.

Click on any decomposition component in the lower right window.

A green border highlights the selected component. At the lower right of the Wavelet 2-D window, there is a set of three buttons labeled "Operations on selected image." Note that if you click again on the same component, you'll deselect it and the green border disappears.

Click the Visualize button.

The selected image is displayed in the visualization area. You are seeing the raw, unreconstructed two-dimensional wavelet coefficients. Using the other buttons, you can display the reconstructed version of the selected image component, or you can view the selected component at full screen resolution.

Using Tree Mode Features

Choose Tree from the View Mode menu.

Your display changes to reveal the following.

This is the same information shown in square mode, with in addition all the approximation coefficients, but arranged to emphasize the tree structure of the decomposition. The various buttons and menus work just the same as they do in square mode.

Zooming in on Detail

Drag a rubber band box (by holding down the left mouse button) over the portion of the image you want to magnify.

Click the XY+ button (located at the bottom of the screen) to zoom horizontally and vertically.

The Wavelet 2-D tool enlarges the displayed images.

To zoom back to original magnification, click the History <<- button.

4. Compress the image

Click the Compress button, located to the upper right of the Wavelet 2-D window. The Wavelet 2-D Compression window appears.

The tool automatically selects thresholding levels to provide a good initial balance between retaining the image's energy while minimizing the number of coefficients needed to represent the image.

However, you can also adjust thresholds manually using the By Level thresholding option, and then the sliders or edits corresponding to each level.

For this example, select the By Level thresholding option and select the Remove near 0 method from the Select thresholding method menu.

The following window is displayed.

Select from the direction menu whether you want to adjust thresholds for horizontal, diagonal or vertical details. To make the actual adjustments for each level, use the sliders or use the left mouse button to directly drag the yellow vertical lines.

To compress the original image, click the Compress button. After a pause for computation, the compressed image is displayed beside the original. Notice that compression eliminates almost half the coefficients, yet no detectable deterioration of the image appears.

5. Show the residuals.

From the Wavelet 2-D Compression tool, click the Residuals button. The More on Residuals for Wavelet 2-D Compression window appears.

Displayed statistics include measures of tendency (mean, mode, median) and dispersion (range, standard deviation). In addition, the tool provides frequency-distribution diagrams (histograms and cumulative histograms). The same tool exists for the Wavelet 2-D Denoising tool.

 Note   The statistics displayed in the above figure are related to the displayed image but not to the original one. Usually this information is the same, but in some cases, edge effects may cause the original image to be cropped slightly. To see the exact statistics, use the command line functions to get the desired image and then apply the desired MATLAB statistical function(s).

### Importing and Exporting Information from the Graphical Interface

The Wavelet 2-D graphical tool lets you import information from and export information to disk, if you adhere to the proper file formats.

#### Saving Information to Disk

You can save synthesized images, coefficients, and decompositions from the Wavelet 2-D tool to disk, where the information can be manipulated and later reimported into the graphical tool.

Saving Synthesized Images.  You can process an image in the Wavelet 2-D tool, and then save the processed image to a MAT-file (with extension `mat` or other).

For example, load the example analysis:

File > Example Analysis > at level 3, with sym4 → detail Durer

and perform a compression on the original image. When you close the Wavelet 2-D Compression window, update the synthesized image by clicking Yes in the dialog box that appears.

Then, from the Wavelet 2-D tool, select the File > Save > Synthesized Image menu option. A dialog box appears allowing you to select a folder and filename for the MAT-file (with extension `mat` or other). For this example, choose the name `symage`.

```load symage whos ```
NameSizeBytesClass
`X``359x371``1065512``double array`
`map``64x3``1536``double array`
`valTHR``1x1``8``double array`
`wname``1x4``8``char array`

The synthesized image is given by `X` and `map` contains the colormap. In addition, the parameters of the denoising or compression process are given by the wavelet name (`wname`) and the global threshold (`valTHR`).

Saving Discrete Wavelet Transform Coefficients.  The Wavelet 2-D tool lets you save the coefficients of a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to disk. The toolbox creates a MAT-file in the current folder with a name you choose.

To save the DWT coefficients from the present analysis, use the menu option File > Save > Coefficients.

A dialog box appears that lets you specify a folder and filename for storing the coefficients.

Consider the example analysis:

File > Example Analysis > at level 3, with sym4 → Detail Durer

After saving the discrete wavelet coefficients to the file `cfsdurer.mat`, load the variables into your workspace:

```load cfsdurer whos ```
NameSizeBytesClass
`coefs``1x142299``1138392``double array`
`map``64x3``1536``double array`
`sizes``5x2``80``double array`
`valTHR``0x0``0``double array`
`wname``1x4``8``char array`

Variable `map` contains the colormap. Variable `wname` contains the wavelet name and `valTHR` is empty since the synthesized image is the same as the original one.

Variables `coefs` and `sizes` contain the discrete wavelet coefficients and the associated matrix sizes. More precisely, in the above example, `coefs` is a 1-by-142299 vector of concatenated coefficients, and `sizes` gives the length of each component.

Saving Decompositions.  The Wavelet 2-D tool lets you save the entire set of data from a discrete wavelet analysis to disk. The toolbox creates a MAT-file in the current folder with a name you choose, followed by the extension `wa2` (wavelet analysis 2-D).

Open the Wavelet 2-D tool and load the example analysis:

File > Example Analysis > at level 3, with sym4 → Detail Durer.

To save the data from this analysis, use the menu option File > Save > Decomposition.

A dialog box appears that lets you specify a folder and filename for storing the decomposition data. Type the name `decdurer`.

After saving the decomposition data to the file `decdurer.wa2`, load the variables into your workspace:

```load decdurer.wa2 -mat whos ```
NameSizeBytesClass
`coefs``1x142299``1138392``double array`
`data_name``1x6``12``char array `
`map``64x3``1536``double array`
`sizes``5x2``80``double array`
`valTHR``0x0``0``double array`
`wave_name``1x4``8``char array`

Variables `coefs` and `sizes` contain the wavelet decomposition structure. Other variables contain the wavelet name, the colormap, and the filename containing the data. Variable `valTHR` is empty since the synthesized image is the same as the original one.

 Note   Save options are also available when performing denoising or compression inside the Wavelet 2-D tool. In the Wavelet 2-D Denoising window, you can save denoised image and decomposition. The same holds true for the Wavelet 2-D Compression window. This way, you can save many different trials from inside the Denoising and Compression windows without going back to the main Wavelet 2-D window during a fine-tuning process. When saving a synthesized signal, a decomposition or coefficients to a MAT-file, the `mat` file extension is not necessary. You can save approximations individually for each level or save them all at once.

You can load images, coefficients, or decompositions into the graphical interface. The information you load may have been previously exported from the graphical interface, and then manipulated in the workspace; or it may have been information you generated initially from the command line.

In either case, you must observe the strict file formats and data structures used by the Wavelet 2-D tool, or else errors will result when you try to load information.

Loading Images.  This toolbox supports only indexed images. An indexed image is a matrix containing only integers from 1 to `n`, where `n` is the number of colors in the image.

This image may optionally be accompanied by an `n`-by-3 matrix called `map`. This is the colormap associated with the image. When MATLAB displays such an image, it uses the values of the matrix to look up the desired color in this colormap. If the colormap is not given, the Wavelet 2-D tool uses a monotonic colormap with `max(max(X))min(min(X))+1` colors.

To load an image you've constructed in your MATLAB workspace into the Wavelet 2-D tool, save the image (and optionally, the variable `map`) in a MAT-file (with extension `mat` or other).

For instance, suppose you've created an image called brain and want to analyze it in the Wavelet 2-D tool. Type

```X = brain; map = pink(256); save myfile X map ```

To load this image into the Wavelet 2-D tool, use the menu option File > Load > Image.

A dialog box appears that lets you select the appropriate MAT-file to be loaded.

 Note   The graphical tools allow you to load an image that does not contain integers from 1 to n. The computations are correct because they act directly on the matrix, but the display of the image is strange. The values less than 1 are evaluated as 1, the values greater than n are evaluated as n, and a real value within the interval [1,n] is evaluated as the closest integer.

The coefficients, approximations, and details produced by wavelet decomposition are not indexed image matrices.

To display these images in a suitable way, the Wavelet 2-D tool follows these rules:

• Reconstructed approximations are displayed using the colormap `map`.

• The coefficients and the reconstructed details are displayed using the colormap `map` applied to a rescaled version of the matrices.

 Note   The first two-dimensional variable encountered in the file (except the variable `map`, which is reserved for the colormap) is considered the image. Variables are inspected in alphabetical order.

Loading Discrete Wavelet Transform Coefficients.  To load discrete wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients into the Wavelet 2-D tool, first save the appropriate data in a MAT-file, which must contain at least the two variables:

• `coefs`, the coefficients vector

• `sizes`, the bookkeeping matrix

For an indexed image the matrix `sizes` is an `n+2`-by-2 array:

For a truecolor image, the matrix `sizes` is a `n+2`-by-3:

Variable `coefs` must be a vector of concatenated DWT coefficients. The `coefs` vector for an `n`-level decomposition contains `3n+1` sections, consisting of the level-`n` approximation coefficients, followed by the horizontal, vertical, and diagonal detail coefficients, in that order, for each level. Variable `sizes` is a matrix, the rows of which specify the size of `cAn`, the size of `cHn` (or `cVn`, or `cDn`),..., the size of `cH1` (or `cV1`, or `cD1`), and the size of the original image `X`. The sizes of vertical and diagonal details are the same as the horizontal detail.

After constructing or editing the appropriate data in your workspace, type

```save myfile coefs sizes ```

Use the File > Load > Coefficients menu option from the Wavelet 2-D tool to load the data into the graphical tool.

A dialog box appears, allowing you to choose the folder and file in which your data reside.

Loading Decompositions.  To load discrete wavelet transform decomposition data into the Wavelet 2-D tool, you must first save the appropriate data in a MAT-file (with extension `wa2 `or other).

The MAT-file contains these variables.

Variable StatusDescription
`coefs`

Required

Vector of concatenated DWT coefficients

`sizes`

Required

Matrix specifying sizes of components of `coefs` and of the original image

`wave_name`

Required

String specifying name of wavelet used for decomposition (e.g., `db3`)

`map`

Optional

`n`-by-3 colormap matrix.

`data_name`

Optional

String specifying name of decomposition

After constructing or editing the appropriate data in your workspace, type

```save myfile.wa2 coefs sizes wave_name ```

Use the File > Load > Decomposition menu option from the Wavelet 2-D tool to load the image decomposition data.

A dialog box appears, allowing you to choose the folder and file in which your data reside.

 Note   When loading an image, a decomposition, or coefficients from a MAT-file, the extension of this file is free. The `mat` extension is not necessary.