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Lets say you have matrix D and you want to normalize each value of Column to unit length (between 0-1). One possible way is :
D = bsxfun(@rdivide,D,sum(D));
each column will be unit normalized. If you take the sum of each column it will be one.
Do let me know if I understand you correct.
Dividing by the maximum does not correct for offset. So only ranges 0-X go to 0-1. If his column has a negative or nonzero minimum it won't normalize to 0-1.
While the formula for correcting this is simple, mat2gray will normalize to 0-1 for you:
for i = 1:ncol D(:,i) = mat2gray(D(:,i)) end
You have to decide if you need to normalize before or after your calculation.