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# How to align the whole image according to a line ?

Asked by Vic on 21 Jan 2013

I have this code below which detects lines on my image but I can't align the whole image( scanned image) to make the lines straight, therefore align the text as well.

This is the image: http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=106hgjs&s=6

The left is the input image and the right should the fixed one.

Any solutions??

Thank you

Vic on 21 Jan 2013
%# read and crop image

I = I(:,1:end-3,:);     %# remove small white band on the side

%# egde detection
BW = edge(rgb2gray(I), 'canny');

%# hough transform
[H T R] = hough(BW);
P  = houghpeaks(H, 4, 'threshold',ceil(0.75*max(H(:))));
lines = houghlines(BW, T, R, P);

% shearing transforma
slopes = vertcat(lines.point2) - vertcat(lines.point1);
slopes = slopes(:,2) ./ slopes(:,1);
TFORM = maketform('affine', [1 -slopes(1) 0 ; 0 1 0 ; 0 0 1]);
II = imtransform(I, TFORM);

%# show edges
figure, imshow(BW)

%# show accumlation matrix and peaks
figure, imshow(imadjust(mat2gray(H)), [], 'XData',T, 'YData',R, 'InitialMagnification','fit')
xlabel('\theta (degrees)'), ylabel('\rho'), colormap(hot), colorbar
hold on, plot(T(P(:,2)), R(P(:,1)), 'gs', 'LineWidth',2), hold off
axis on, axis normal

%# show image with lines overlayed, and the aligned/rotated image
figure
subplot(121), imshow(I), hold on
for k = 1:length(lines)
xy = [lines(k).point1; lines(k).point2];
plot(xy(:,1), xy(:,2), 'g.-', 'LineWidth',2);
end, hold off
subplot(122), imshow(II)

Matt J on 21 Jan 2013

Reformatting:

 %# read and crop image
%I = imread('http://i.stack.imgur.com/CJHaA.png');
I = I(:,1:end-3,:); %# remove small white band on the side

%# egde detection
BW = edge(rgb2gray(I), 'canny');

%# hough transform
[H T R] = hough(BW);
P = houghpeaks(H, 4, 'threshold',ceil(0.75*max(H(:))));
lines = houghlines(BW, T, R, P);

% shearing transforma
slopes = vertcat(lines.point2) - vertcat(lines.point1);
slopes = slopes(:,2) ./ slopes(:,1);
TFORM = maketform('affine', [1 -slopes(1) 0 ; 0 1 0 ; 0 0 1]);
II = imtransform(I, TFORM);

%# show edges figure, imshow(BW)

%# show accumlation matrix and peaks figure, imshow(imadjust(mat2gray(H)), [], 'XData',T, 'YData',R, 'InitialMagnification','fit')
xlabel('\theta (degrees)'),
ylabel('\rho'),
colormap(hot),
colorbar hold on,
plot(T(P(:,2)), R(P(:,1)), 'gs', 'LineWidth',2),
hold off
axis on,
axis normal

%# show image with lines overlayed, and the aligned/rotated image   figure subplot(121),
imshow(I),
hold on
for k = 1:length(lines)
xy = [lines(k).point1; lines(k).point2];
plot(xy(:,1), xy(:,2), 'g.-', 'LineWidth',2);
end,
hold off
subplot(122),
imshow(II)


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Answer by Matt J on 21 Jan 2013

Not sure why you would apply a shear. Shouldn't it just be a rotation+translation?

Vic on 21 Jan 2013

Using Hough Transform to compute line angles so that I can perform a Shearing Transform to align the image. Isn't that the idea? Any ideas?

Thanks

Matt J on 21 Jan 2013

I already told you my idea - to apply a rotation/translation instead of a shear.

However, there could be something I don't understand about the problem. That's why I also asked you what made you decide on a shear.

Answer by Image Analyst on 21 Jan 2013

Once you determine the angle of that long line in the center, simply call imrotate(). Then crop if desired.

Image Analyst on 21 Jan 2013

Matt (regarding your first comment) - right, and if a relative translation is not desired, then that's taken into account by the crop. You position the cropping rectangle to eliminate any lateral shift. You could not even worry about translating if you used a smarter but more complicated algorithm that looks at the lines and array of circles to set up a coordinate system. The other way is to translate the image after rotation so that the circles land in predefined locations. Then you can use a predefined mask to check the "filled" or "empty" status of the circles. Like Matt said, I think you could do the rotation and translation all in one shot if you just specify the endpoints of the long central line and the endpoints of where you want it to be in the desired final image.

Vic on 21 Jan 2013

Things are getting interesting here, thanks for all the help and advice!!! In my mind right now the best way to do it is to compare the orientation of the line between the two images to find the rotation of the scanned image and using that difference apply a rotation. After this, I will use translation to find the the end point of the lines and again compare the (x,y) coordinates.

Am entirely new at this and if the above I wrote are correct could please provide me with the necessary functions from start to bottom in order to find a way do it on my own?

Many thanks!!!

Image Analyst on 21 Jan 2013

Here's a start:

% Read in a demo image.
folder = 'C:\Users\Vic\Documents\Temporary';
baseFileName = 'testsheet.png';
% Get the full filename, with path prepended.
fullFileName = fullfile(folder, baseFileName);
% Check if file exists.
if ~exist(fullFileName, 'file')
% File doesn't exist -- didn't find it there.  Check the search path for it.
fullFileName = baseFileName; % No path this time.
if ~exist(fullFileName, 'file')
% Still didn't find it.  Alert user.
errorMessage = sprintf('Error: %s does not exist in the search path folders.', fullFileName);
uiwait(warndlg(errorMessage));
return;
end
end
% Get the dimensions of the image.
% numberOfColorBands should be = 1.
[rows columns numberOfColorBands] = size(grayImage)
if numberOfColorBands > 1
% Convert to grayscale.
grayImage = rgb2gray(grayImage);
end
% Display the original gray scale image.
subplot(1, 2, 1);
imshow(grayImage, []);
title('Original Grayscale Image', 'FontSize', fontSize);
% Enlarge figure to full screen.
set(gcf, 'units','normalized','outerposition',[0 0 1 1]);
% Give a name to the title bar.
set(gcf,'name','Demo by ImageAnalyst','numbertitle','off')

uiwait(msgbox('Locate the two endpoints of the line.'));
[actualx actualy] = ginput(2)

% Determine where the end points should be in the final, aligned image.
desiredx = mean(actualx);
desiredy = zeros(2,1);
desiredy(1) = actualy(1);
lineLength = hypot(actualx(1)-actualx(2), actualy(1)-actualy(2))
desiredy(2) = desiredy(1) + lineLength;


Then call maketform(), followed by tformfwd().