I would like to know with a black and white image of bit depth 8 (0-255 tones), how could I divide this range of 0-255 into two or more range for the purpose of decreasing the intensity levels of an image in Matlab? For instance, if a pixel has the intensity 192, how could I possibly bring it down to 2 by dividing the range of 0-255?
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Simply divide by 2:
yourImage = uint8(yourImage / 2);
I have no idea what you are thinking with respect to having two or more ranges. You have only one range 0-255 and images can take any value in that range.