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Ask and it shall be given unto you:
There is now a new answer to this queston: yes. In case you missed it: yes. And to clarify: YES.
EDIT TO ADD: Congratulations to our first MATLAB Certified Associates! (Want to join the club? Click the link above...)
RoJo is correct.
You receive confirmation of any MathWorks training courses you complete, but there is currently no MathWorks certification program for MATLAB. People have asked for this and it is under consideration.
Mathworks certify that you complete their courses. http://www.mathworks.com/services/training/policies/faq.html
You can request the brochure at http://www.mathworks.com/services/training/req_brochure.html
However, if you are looking for an exam structure similar to Java certification I am not aware of any, apart from being part of university courses.