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Did you try to input "3e4" in the command window? What happens?
3e1 3e2 3e3
david's and Simon's answers are sufficient already.
While the definition is obviously clear and a common standard in nearly all programming languages, do you find it in Matlab's documentation?
What about 1E2, 1E-2 .1E-02, 1.e+2, 1.1e0, 2e2345678, 2d3, 3D4? The technical support stated, that only the formats supported by format are supported with a guarantee. But sscanf and the parser of M-code works for much more styles. It would be useful to document this fundamental detail.