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Antenna's Array Synthesis

version 1.0 (221 KB) by

Simple and didactical program for undertanding 3D radiation pattern of arrays.

13 Ratings



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This is an old program (1.999) that I have written for understanding radiation patterns of antennas. Basically I was looking for the relationship between interference diagram (Fourier transform of ilumination, usually called Array Factor) and 3D radiation pattern of the Array. For that reason, it represents XY, XZ and YZ planes instead of H and E.
On this version the visible space is not update. On final version (I don't find it), the visible space where delimitated between lines over the interference pattern, and you can see how it varies with distance between antennas and ilumination phase law.

1.- Download and Unzip this file on a folder inside your system hierarchy (i.e. "C:\Documents\Cesar\Arrays").

2.- Check that your Matlab has the "Symbolic Toolbox" installed. Type: "help symbolic" or "help syms" on your Matlab command line.

3.- Add this folder and subfolders on Matlab path (from Matlab command line), on this way:

3.1.- Menus path: File -> Set Path
3.2.- Press Button: "Add Folder with Subfolders"
3.3.- Select the the folder desire (on my example: "C:\Documents\Cesar\Arrays")
3.4.- Then: "Accept" and "Close"


a) Folders and subfolders haven't been added to Matlab path.

"After clicking OK on first window, Matlab will vlose the window and print those lines on the command line:

??? Undefined function or variable 'arrays'.

??? Error while evaluating uicontrol Callback.


b) Symbolic Toolbox not present on your Matlab.

"You will see the GUI, but not the radiation patterns"

Comments and Ratings (41)

ayush agarwal



Simran (view profile)

Hello Sir, I am currently working on similar project on designing a Radiation Pattern Calculator for linear arrays on Matlba or Excel. Could you please send me your code on how you designed it so that I could use it as a reference? My email add is Any help would be appreciated.


Sharad (view profile)

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amalis essid

Dear sir
Thank you for all those clarifications.
I done all steps.
I type "Inicio", but just a figure appears without buttons.

César Delgado

César Delgado (view profile)

Dear Amalis Essid:

In order to run the code you need:

a) Symbolic Toolbox installed
b) Folder/Subfolders to code added to Matlab path

Please, see the instructions above.

Once installed those things, just type "Inicio" in the command line.

About usage, it is very simple.

a) Select synthesis type (radio buttons below). It will pop-up a window requesting parameters.

b) Select how dipoles are distributed: in line to array axis or square to it.

c) Click over the diagram you want to see (big buttons in the right pannel).

This is basically all.

César Delgado

César Delgado (view profile)

Dear Prag S:

I don't have any english version, sorry ofr the inconvinient.

This is a very old program, coded in 1999 in a week time in order to understand radiation.

The heart of the system is located in the calculation functions, in symbolic toolbox.

In the RAR file there is a Word document that explains the calculations.

amalis essid

Hi Sir
Can you please describe how to use your program ?

Step by step please.

Thank you

amalis essid

Hi Sir
i execute your programm, but this message appears :
??? Undefined function or variable 'diagramme'.
what i must do to avoid this problem ?

prags s

i want english version pl send it...........
mail id is

Hi Sir,
I need genetic algorithm to design microstrip antenna .can u help me with it.
my mail id is



hassan hamdoun

I downloaded the files but
in which language are they?
canI have an English version please?

Raphael Galvão

Excelent! I'm burning my brain to try to make a 3d plot of radiation patterns using a planet file... Great job!

chalasani subba rao


zarreen aijaz

no comment

Cesar Delgado

Es una pena que no disponga de la última versión. En ella se desplazaba el margen visible a lo largo del patrón de interferencias (función de agrupación) y era francamente ilustrativo. Si os interesa, puedo dejaros un muy buen documento que hice sobre arrays de antenas. Explica de forma muy sencilla y gráfica el problema de los arrays. Al final, se trata de diseñar un filtro digital y el matlab es genial para esos menesteres

sangho lim

pls send the english version

Patxi Azpiroz

Eres dios!!!
tu toolbox nos servirá de mucho para entender antenas

Cesar Delgado


This is a very simple program I've done during my bachellor (8 years ago) in order to understand antennas. At this moment, I am out of this world, so, I won't translate the code to english.

Anyway, it is really simple, it took me one week to code it, so everybody can write something similar.

Basic ideas:

1.- Use symbolic expressions: the reason of the simplicity of this code. Few and very short functions is the core, easy to understand since mathematical language.

2.- Most of the code is the GUI: the GUI has a really bad coding style (spaghetti code), that's why it is so large. A friend of mine adapt his GUI to this project in order to have an easy way to manipulate parameters: it was my first GUI and his second one and we learn at our own.


pls send the english version

ali tbadar


Dominique Beaulieu

Maybe you could put an English version when others will make their stuff in Spanish!

Podrías poner una versión Gringa solamente cuando los otros van a poner sus versiones en español!

Il mettra une version anglaise quand tu mettras une version en espagnol!

Quant à moi, si je mets une version française, je la traduirai en anglais lorsque vous traduirez vos trucs en français!

Cesar Delgado Gonzalez

The cuts are on XY, XZ, YZ, instead of E and H planes. For that reason, you are not watching the expected azimut and elevation patterns.

Well, many things should be modified. Specially related to GUI (it was my first Matlab GUI).

Imdad Islam

Radiation pattern only in azimuthal or elevation postion does not vary properly with variation of array parameters but 3-D patterns are ok. Neverthelse it is a good job and I expect its english version


it is excellent,i am a fan of matlab, and today that i have seen it,you are the best

César Delgado González

You haven't added folder and subfolders on Matlab path, on this way from command line:
1.- File -> Set Path
2.- Add Folder with subfolders
3.- Select the folder where the programs is placed


Ewerton Romulo

I type "INICIO"
The interface appear...
I click in "OK" button

This message appear:
??? Undefined function or variable 'arrays'.

??? Error while evaluating uicontrol Callback.

Can any one help?


César Delgado González

Youn can't see the pattern probably cause symbolic toolbox is haven't been installed on your Matlab. Try "help syms"

Matlab Student

i can't see the pattern..all i can see is the interface...does anyone know why?

Akil Mansour

hello sir i appreciate you help,yes i want this program for arry antenna.if it is possible to send it to my e-mail( you very much

Akil Mansou

Hello Sir, I require some notes about how can build codes with matlab for radiation pattern of array antenna.

arnab das

César Delgado González

Hi Michael:

Well, I don't remember this program well. It is just a "dirty and quick" code wrote for understanding radiatìon pattern of arrays.

I only have some few ideas:
1.- Calculation functions: all those functions just calculate the symbolic expresion of the array function for the synthesis you have selected before. I mean, the array ratiation diagram for a set isotropical antennas on a linear disposition and the ilumination law required.

2.- Evaluation functions: evaluate the symbolic expression of both, the array and the basic antenna diagram (dipole) for the specific plot (plane, 3-D, etc.) and then do the product of both results.

3.- Representation functions: just show the results on the figure.

If you want a better program for arrays, but not didactical and not user friendly, I can send you one.

Please, feel free to e-mail me if you want it, or if you have more questions.


michael Rodas

If i f.x. run schelke.m, an diagram don´t apears on the screan. How can i get a diagram when im running a dipolo, uniforme, tcheby etc.

César Delgado González

Hi, Fahim:

I can't help you with this topic. All notes I have are written in spanish and only for didactical purposes, so won't help you much. Sorry,


Fahim Umrani

Hello Sir,
I require some notes on the Smart Antennas (specially on improving Spectral Efficiency and Transmission efficiency using Smart Antennas)

Ali Awad


César Delgado González

Hi Sajjad:

You were looking for antenna array literature. Well, I have written many short and easy to understand jobs about this arrays, but, unfortunately are in spanish.

Best Antenna's book, from my point of view, is Cardama's one, but haven't been translate to English, as far as I know.

I like this book cause Antennas are focus from signal processing perspective, so it is quite easy to understand:

a) Radiation patterns on Franhouffer zone is the product of 2 terms:

- Shape Term: which has a straight relationship with Fourier Transform of iluminations (electric and/or magnetic current distribution on the Antenna, using the equivalence theorem).

- Propagation Term: which describe how the radiation travel over the medium.

b) Shape Term: is the result of the interference of all rays ( that comes from every point of the antenna) on each direction.

The Interference pattern is the Fourier Transform of ilumination, but not the infinite interferences are allow, cause the Antenna has physical dimensions. So, if we see the worse case (each oposite boundary of the Antena on the direction which the rays has the larger way), then we've got the visible space.

Exists a wide variety of books for Antennas: Balanis, Kraus, etc. But I think that are more handbooks that didactical books. It is quite difficult to understand the main point on radiation. For me, Cardama's book is, by far, the best book for learning antennas.

Hope this help,


sajjad Hyder

Hello Sir,
pl send me antenna array literatures
my email addess

César Delgado González

Hi, David:

It requires:

a) Symbolic Toolbox
b) Release 5.x.

I have tested it on 5.1 and 5.3 and works fine. May be on 5.2 don't. On 6.5 doesn't work at all.

Feel free to contact me if you want to run this program, but it is just a program that I have wrote for myself in order to understand radiation.


David Collins

This program has errors it will not run on matlab 5.2
DLL load failed for mex file , error is One of the library files needed to run this application cannot be found.



BSD License

More detailed explanation is requires

More detailed explanation is requires

The more important tlabes on the GUI has been traslated to english

David Collins gave me teh key why this program does not work on Matlab 6.5.
I have update the program in order to run on Matlab 6.5, and I also classified the code on a folders squeme.

David Collins give me the key why this program does not work on Matlab 6.5.

Now I have updated it in order to run under Matlab 6.5. Also I have classified the scripts unsing folders squeme.

MATLAB Release
MATLAB 5.2 (R10)

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