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I believe containers.Map uses a binary tree structure and therefore is log(n) as opposed to O(1).
I agree with Shawn
I've been having trouble finding MATLAB built-in support for hash tables and a coworker recently pointed me to this:
which describes MATLAB's containers.Map data structure.
I can't see anything in the documentation that describes the underlying data structures but tests seem to imply O(1) insertion and lookup.
I wanted to mention that here since this page is currently the second hit for the Google search "MATLAB hashtable".
Its much faster to use the hash table class of java
One could also use the Hashtable class of Java, e.g.,
ht = java.util.Hashtable;
ht.put('key1',[1 2 3]);