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Subject: Re: Distance from 3D point to line segments
Date: Sat, 20 Oct 2012 09:34:08 +0000 (UTC)
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"Sean" wrote in message <k5shn7$c08$1@newscl01ah.mathworks.com>...
> ....... I am struggling with creating the arcs/curves in 3D. I have the 2 end points and the radius. I then need to compare distance of a 3D point to this 3D curve... 
- - - - - - - - - - -
  If your curves are true circular arcs (as hinted at by your use of the term 'radius') then there is an explicit formula for the closest distance to an arc from any given point in 3D.  We assume here the arc angle is less than pi radians.  (In the image yours look about pi/2 radians.)

  Let the center of an arc be point C, and the two arc endpoints be A and B.  Let R = norm(A-C) = norm(B-C) be the arc's radius.  Then compute:

 u = cross(A-C,B-C); u = u/norm(u); % Make u a unit vector
 v = cross(u,A-C);
 w = cross(B-C,u);

  With any given point P first compute 

 PC = P-C;

Then if the inequalities

 dot(v,PC) >= 0 and dot(w,PC) >= 0

are both true, the minimum distance to a point on the arc from P is:

 d = sqrt(dot(PC,PC)+R^2-2*R*norm(cross(PC,u))); % Cosine law of triangles

  If the two inequalities are not both true, then either one of the two endpoints is the closest point or else some other line or arc segment is closest.  If the arcs are all tangent to adjacent line segments as in your image, it would be the latter.

Roger Stafford