# Train SVM Classifier Using Custom Kernel

This example shows how to use a custom kernel function, such as the sigmoid kernel, to train SVM classifiers, and adjust custom kernel function parameters.

Generate a random set of points within the unit circle. Label points in the first and third quadrants as belonging to the positive class, and those in the second and fourth quadrants in the negative class.

rng(1); % For reproducibility n = 100; % Number of points per quadrant r1 = sqrt(rand(2*n,1)); % Random radii t1 = [pi/2*rand(n,1); (pi/2*rand(n,1)+pi)]; % Random angles for Q1 and Q3 X1 = [r1.*cos(t1) r1.*sin(t1)]; % Polar-to-Cartesian conversion r2 = sqrt(rand(2*n,1)); t2 = [pi/2*rand(n,1)+pi/2; (pi/2*rand(n,1)-pi/2)]; % Random angles for Q2 and Q4 X2 = [r2.*cos(t2) r2.*sin(t2)]; X = [X1; X2]; % Predictors Y = ones(4*n,1); Y(2*n + 1:end) = -1; % Labels

Plot the data.

```
figure;
gscatter(X(:,1),X(:,2),Y);
title('Scatter Diagram of Simulated Data')
```

Write a function that accepts two matrices in the feature space as inputs, and transforms them into a Gram matrix using the sigmoid kernel.

function G = mysigmoid(U,V) % Sigmoid kernel function with slope gamma and intercept c gamma = 1; c = -1; G = tanh(gamma*U*V' + c); end

Save this code as a file named `mysigmoid` on your MATLAB® path.

Train an SVM classifier using the sigmoid kernel function. It is good practice to standardize the data.

Mdl1 = fitcsvm(X,Y,'KernelFunction','mysigmoid','Standardize',true);

`Mdl1` is a `ClassificationSVM` classifier containing the estimated parameters.

Plot the data, and identify the support vectors and the decision boundary.

% Compute the scores over a grid d = 0.02; % Step size of the grid [x1Grid,x2Grid] = meshgrid(min(X(:,1)):d:max(X(:,1)),... min(X(:,2)):d:max(X(:,2))); xGrid = [x1Grid(:),x2Grid(:)]; % The grid [~,scores1] = predict(Mdl1,xGrid); % The scores figure; h(1:2) = gscatter(X(:,1),X(:,2),Y); hold on h(3) = plot(X(Mdl1.IsSupportVector,1),... X(Mdl1.IsSupportVector,2),'ko','MarkerSize',10); % Support vectors contour(x1Grid,x2Grid,reshape(scores1(:,2),size(x1Grid)),[0 0],'k'); % Decision boundary title('Scatter Diagram with the Decision Boundary') legend({'-1','1','Support Vectors'},'Location','Best'); hold off

You can adjust the kernel parameters in an attempt to improve the shape of the decision boundary. This might also decrease the within-sample misclassification rate, but, you should first determine the out-of-sample misclassification rate.

Determine the out-of-sample misclassification rate by using 10-fold cross validation.

CVMdl1 = crossval(Mdl1); misclass1 = kfoldLoss(CVMdl1); misclass1

misclass1 = 0.1350

The out-of-sample misclassification rate is 13.5%.

Write another sigmoid function, but Set `gamma = 0.5;`.

function G = mysigmoid2(U,V) % Sigmoid kernel function with slope gamma and intercept c gamma = 0.5; c = -1; G = tanh(gamma*U*V' + c); end

Save this code as a file named `mysigmoid2` on your MATLAB® path.

Train another SVM classifier using the adjusted sigmoid kernel. Plot the data and the decision region, and determine the out-of-sample misclassification rate.

Mdl2 = fitcsvm(X,Y,'KernelFunction','mysigmoid2','Standardize',true); [~,scores2] = predict(Mdl2,xGrid); figure; h(1:2) = gscatter(X(:,1),X(:,2),Y); hold on h(3) = plot(X(Mdl2.IsSupportVector,1),... X(Mdl2.IsSupportVector,2),'ko','MarkerSize',10); title('Scatter Diagram with the Decision Boundary') contour(x1Grid,x2Grid,reshape(scores2(:,2),size(x1Grid)),[0 0],'k'); legend({'-1','1','Support Vectors'},'Location','Best'); hold off CVMdl2 = crossval(Mdl2); misclass2 = kfoldLoss(CVMdl2); misclass2

misclass2 = 0.0450

After the sigmoid slope adjustment, the new decision boundary seems to provide a better within-sample fit, and the cross-validation rate contracts by more than 66%.