Coordinate systems allow you to track an aircraft or spacecraft position and orientation in space. The Aerospace Toolbox coordinate systems are based on these underlying concepts from geodesy, astronomy, and physics.

The Aerospace Toolbox software uses *right-handed* (RH) Cartesian coordinate
systems. The *rightmost rule* establishes the
* x*-

`y`

`z`

An *inertial frame* is a nonaccelerating motion reference frame. Loosely
speaking, acceleration is defined with respect to the distant cosmos. In an inertial frame,
Newton's second law (force = mass X acceleration) holds.

Strictly defined, an inertial frame is a member of the set of
all frames not accelerating relative to one another. A *noninertial
frame* is any frame accelerating relative to an inertial
frame. Its acceleration, in general, includes both translational and
rotational components, resulting in *pseudoforces* (*pseudogravity*,
as well as *Coriolis* and *centrifugal
forces*).

The toolbox models the Earth shape (the *geoid*) as an oblate spheroid, a
special type of ellipsoid with two longer axes equal (defining the *equatorial
plane*) and a third, slightly shorter (*geopolar*) axis of
symmetry. The equator is the intersection of the equatorial plane and the Earth surface. The
geographic poles are the intersection of the Earth surface and the geopolar axis. In
general, the Earth geopolar and rotation axes are not identical.

Latitudes parallel the equator. Longitudes parallel the geopolar
axis. The *zero longitude* or *prime
meridian* passes through Greenwich, England.

The Aerospace Toolbox software makes three standard approximations in defining coordinate systems relative to the Earth.

The Earth surface or geoid is an oblate spheroid, defined by its longer equatorial, and defined by its longer equatorial and shorter geopolar axes. In reality, the Earth is slightly deformed with respect to the standard geoid.

The Earth rotation axis and equatorial plane are perpendicular, so that the rotation and geopolar axes are identical. In reality, these axes are slightly misaligned, and the equatorial plane wobbles as the Earth rotates. This effect is negligible in most applications.

The only noninertial effect in Earth-fixed coordinates is due to the Earth rotation about its axis. This is a

*rotating*,*geocentric*system. The toolbox ignores the Earth motion around the Sun, the Sun motion in the Galaxy, and the Galaxy's motion through cosmos. In most applications, only the Earth rotation matters.This approximation must be changed for spacecraft sent into deep space, that is, outside the Earth-Moon system, and a heliocentric system is preferred.

The Aerospace Toolbox software uses the standard WGS-84 geoid to model the Earth. You can change the equatorial axis length, the flattening, and the rotation rate.

You can represent the motion of spacecraft with respect to any celestial body that is well approximated by an oblate spheroid by changing the spheroid size, flattening, and rotation rate. If the celestial body is rotating westward (retrogradely), make the rotation rate negative.

*Recommended Practice for Atmospheric and Space Flight
Vehicle Coordinate Systems*, R-004-1992, ANSI/AIAA, February
1992.

Mapping Toolbox™ documentation, The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, Massachusetts. Mapping Toolbox.

Rogers, R. M., *Applied Mathematics in Integrated Navigation
Systems*, AIAA, Reston, Virginia, 2000.

Stevens, B. L., and F. L. Lewis, *Aircraft Control, and Simulation*, 2nd
ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2003.

Thomson, W. T., *Introduction to Space Dynamics*,
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1961/Dover Publications, Mineola,
New York, 1986.

World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84), `https://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/update/index.php`

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