Documentation

# hilbiir

Design Hilbert transform IIR filter

## Syntax

```hilbiir hilbiir(ts) hilbiir(ts,dly) hilbiir(ts,dly,bandwidth) hilbiir(ts,dly,bandwidth,tol) [num,den] = hilbiir(...) [num,den,sv] = hilbiir(...) [a,b,c,d] = hilbiir(...) [a,b,c,d,sv] = hilbiir(...) ```

## Description

The function `hilbiir` designs a Hilbert transform filter. The output is either

• A plot of the filter's impulse response, or

• A quantitative characterization of the filter, using either a transfer function model or a state-space model

### Background Information

An ideal Hilbert transform filter has the transfer function `H(s) = -jsgn(s)`, where `sgn(.)` is the signum function (`sign` in MATLAB). The impulse response of the Hilbert transform filter is

`$h\left(t\right)=\frac{1}{\pi t}$`

Because the Hilbert transform filter is a noncausal filter, the `hilbiir` function introduces a group delay, `dly`. A Hilbert transform filter with this delay has the impulse response

`$h\left(t\right)=\frac{1}{\pi \left(t-\text{dly}\right)}$`

### Choosing a Group Delay Parameter

The filter design is an approximation. If you provide the filter's group delay as an input argument, these two suggestions can help improve the accuracy of the results:

• Choose the sample time `ts` and the filter's group delay `dly` so that `dly` is at least a few times larger than `ts` and ```rem(dly,ts) = ts/2```. For example, you can set `ts` to 2`*dly/N`, where `N` is a positive integer.

• At the point t = `dly`, the impulse response of the Hilbert transform filter can be interpreted as `0`, `-Inf`, or `Inf`. If `hilbiir` encounters this point, it sets the impulse response there to zero. To improve accuracy, avoid the point t = `dly`.

### Syntaxes for Plots

Each of these syntaxes produces a plot of the impulse response of the filter that the `hilbiir` function designs, as well as the impulse response of a corresponding ideal Hilbert transform filter.

`hilbiir` plots the impulse response of a fourth-order digital Hilbert transform filter with a one-second group delay. The sample time is 2/7 seconds. In this particular design, the tolerance index is 0.05. The plot also displays the impulse response of the ideal Hilbert transform filter with a one-second group delay.

`hilbiir(ts)` plots the impulse response of a fourth-order Hilbert transform filter with a sample time of `ts` seconds and a group delay of `ts*7/2` seconds. The tolerance index is 0.05. The plot also displays the impulse response of the ideal Hilbert transform filter having a sample time of `ts` seconds and a group delay of `ts*7/2` seconds.

`hilbiir(ts,dly)` is the same as the syntax above, except that the filter's group delay is `dly` for both the ideal filter and the filter that `hilbiir` designs. See Choosing a Group Delay Parameter above for guidelines on choosing `dly`.

`hilbiir(ts,dly,bandwidth)` is the same as the syntax above, except that `bandwidth` specifies the assumed bandwidth of the input signal and that the filter design might use a compensator for the input signal. If `bandwidth` = 0 or `bandwidth` > 1/(2`*ts`), `hilbiir` does not use a compensator.

`hilbiir(ts,dly,bandwidth,tol)` is the same as the syntax above, except that `tol` is the tolerance index. If `tol` < 1, the order of the filter is determined by

`$\frac{\text{truncated-singular-value}}{\text{maximum-singular-value}}<\text{tol}$`

If `tol` > 1, the order of the filter is `tol`.

### Syntaxes for Transfer Function and State-Space Quantities

Each of these syntaxes produces quantitative information about the filter that `hilbiir` designs, but does not produce a plot. The input arguments for these syntaxes (if you provide any) are the same as those described in Syntaxes for Plots.

`[num,den] = hilbiir(...)` outputs the numerator and denominator of the IIR filter's transfer function.

`[num,den,sv] = hilbiir(...)` outputs the numerator and denominator of the IIR filter's transfer function, and the singular values of the Hankel matrix that `hilbiir` uses in the computation.

`[a,b,c,d] = hilbiir(...)` outputs the discrete-time state-space model of the designed Hilbert transform filter. `a`, `b`, `c`, and `d` are matrices.

`[a,b,c,d,sv] = hilbiir(...)` outputs the discrete-time state-space model of the designed Hilbert transform filter, and the singular values of the Hankel matrix that `hilbiir` uses in the computation.

## Examples

For an example using the function's default values, type one of the following commands at the MATLAB prompt.

```hilbiir [num,den] = hilbiir```

## Algorithms

The `hilbiir` function calculates the impulse response of the ideal Hilbert transform filter response with a group delay. It fits the response curve using a singular-value decomposition method. See the book by Kailath .

## References

 Kailath, Thomas, Linear Systems, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, 1980.