Note: This page has been translated by MathWorks. Click here to see

To view all translated materials including this page, select Country from the country navigator on the bottom of this page.

To view all translated materials including this page, select Country from the country navigator on the bottom of this page.

(Removed) Recover symbol timing phase using squaring method

**Squaring Timing Recovery has been removed. Use the Symbol Synchronizer block
instead.**

Timing Phase Recovery sublibrary of Synchronization

The Squaring Timing Recovery block recovers the symbol timing phase of the input signal using a squaring method. This feedforward, non-data-aided method is similar to the conventional squaring loop. This block is suitable for systems that use linear baseband modulation types such as pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), phase shift keying (PSK) modulation, and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM).

Typically, the input to this block is the output of a receive filter that is
matched to the transmitting pulse shape. This block accepts a column vector
input signal of type `double`

or `single`

.
The input represents **Symbols per frame** symbols, using
**Samples per symbol** samples for each symbol.
Typically, **Symbols per frame** is approximately 100,
**Samples per symbol** is at least 4, and the input
signal is shaped using a raised cosine filter.

The block assumes that the phase offset is constant for all symbols in the entire input frame. If necessary, use the Buffer block to reorganize your data into frames over which the phase offset can be assumed constant. If the assumption of constant phase offset is valid, then a larger frame length yields a more accurate phase offset estimate.

The block estimates the phase offset for the symbols in each input frame and
applies the estimate uniformly over the input frame. The block outputs
signals containing one sample per symbol. Therefore, the size of each output
equals the **Symbols per frame **parameter value. The
outputs are as follows:

The output port labeled

`Sym`

gives the result of applying the phase estimate uniformly over the input frame. This output is the signal value for each symbol, which can be used for decision purposes.The output port labeled

`Ph`

gives the phase estimate for each symbol in the input frame. All elements in this output are the*same*nonnegative real number less than the**Samples per symbol**parameter value. Noninteger values for the phase estimate correspond to interpolated values that lie between two values of the input signal.

**Symbols per frame**The number of symbols in each frame of the input signal.

**Samples per symbol**The number of input samples that represent each symbol. This must be greater than 1.

This block uses a timing estimator that returns

$$-\frac{1}{2\pi}\mathrm{arg}\left({\displaystyle \sum _{m\text{=0}}^{\text{LN-1}}{\left|{x}_{m+1}\right|}^{2}\text{exp(-j2}\pi m\text{/N)}}\right)$$

as the normalized phase between -1/2 and 1/2, where *x* is
the input vector, L is the **Symbols per frame** parameter
and N is the **Samples per symbol** parameter.

[1] Oerder, M. and H. Myer, "Digital Filter and
Square Timing Recovery," *IEEE Transactions on
Communications*, Vol. COM-36, No. 5, May 1988,
pp. 605-612.

[2] Mengali, Umberto and Aldo N. D'Andrea,
*Synchronization Techniques for Digital
Receivers*, New York, Plenum Press, 1997.

[3] Meyr, Heinrich, Marc Moeneclaey, and Stefan
A. Fechtel, *Digital Communication Receivers*,
Vol 2, New York, Wiley, 1998.