`objectDetection`

FormatThese examples show how to convert actual detections in the native format of the sensor into `objectDetection`

objects. `objectDetection`

is the standard input format for most filters and trackers in Sensor Fusion and Tracking toolbox. The five examples progressively show how to set up `objectDetection`

with varied tracking scenarios.

Example 1 configures the detection in a stationary rectangular frame.

Example 2 configures the detection in a moving rectangular frame.

Example 3 configures the detection in a moving spherical frame.

Example 4 shows how to express detections obtained by consecutive rotations.

Example 5 shows how to configure 3-D detections.

An `objectDetection`

report must contain the basic detection information: `Time`

and `Measurement`

. It can also contain other key properties, including `MeasurementNoise`

, `SensorIndex`

, `ObjectClassID`

, `ObjectAttributes`

, and `MeasurementParameters`

. Setting up `MeasurementParameters`

correctly so that a filter or tracker can interpret the measurement is crucial in creating `objectDetection`

. The first example shows the basic setup of an `objectDetection`

. The remaining examples focus on how to correctly set up `MeasurementParameters`

.

Consider a 2-D tracking scenario with a stationary tower and a truck. The tower located at the origin of the scenario frame is equipped with a radar sensor. At $\mathit{t}$ = 0 seconds, the truck at the position of (10,20,0) meters is traveling in the positive $\mathit{X}$ direction at a speed of 5 m/s.

The radar sensor outputs 3-D position and velocity measurements in the scenario frame, so the measurement can be written as follows:

`measurement1 = [10;20;0;5;0;0]; % [x;y;z;vx;vy;vz]`

You can specify additional properties such as `MeasurmentNoise`

, `SensorIndex`

, `ObjectClassID`

, and `ObjectAttributes`

for the `objectDetection`

object. For example, assuming the standard deviation of the position and velocity measurement noise is 10 m and 1 m/s, respectively, you can define the measurement error covariance matrix as:

measurementNoise1 = diag([10*ones(3,1);ones(3,1)]);

Create an `objectDetection`

using these values.

time1 = 0; % detection time detect1 = objectDetection(time1,measurement1,'MeasurementNoise',measurementNoise1)

detect1 = objectDetection with properties: Time: 0 Measurement: [6x1 double] MeasurementNoise: [6x6 double] SensorIndex: 1 ObjectClassID: 0 MeasurementParameters: {} ObjectAttributes: {}

Consider a 2-D tracking scenario with an ego car and a truck. At $\mathit{t}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$= 0 seconds, the car is located at (20,10,0) meters with respect to the scenario frame. The car is moving with a speed of 5 m/s in the $\mathit{Y}$ direction of the scenario frame. The local (forward) frame of the ego car, {$\mathit{x}$,$\mathit{y}$}, rotates from the scenario frame by an angle of 90 degrees. As in the previous example, a truck at the position of (10,20,0) meters is traveling in the positive $\mathit{X}$ direction at a speed of 5 m/s.

Meanwhile, the ego car is observing the truck in its own local frame, {$\mathit{x}$,$\mathit{y}$}. In practice, you can obtain the measurement directly from the sensor system of the ego car. From the figure, the measurements of the truck are [10; 10; 0 -5; -5; 0] with respect to the {$\mathit{x}$,$\mathit{y}$} frame in the order of [`x;y;z;vx;vy;vz`

].

`measurement2 = [10; 10; 0; -5; -5; 0]; % [x;y;z;vx;vy;vz]`

To specify the object detection, you need to specify the coordinate transformation from the scenario rectangular frame {$\mathit{X}$,$\mathit{Y}$} to the local rectangular frame {$\mathit{x}$,$\mathit{y}$}. You can use the `MeasurementParameters`

property of `objectDetection`

to specify these transformation parameters. In the transformation, the scenario frame is the *parent* frame, and the ego car local frame is the *child* frame.

The

`Frame`

property sets the child frame type to '`rectangular'`

(in this example) or '`spherical'`

.The

`OriginPosition`

property sets the position of the origin of the child frame with respect to the parent frame.The

`OriginVelocity`

property sets the velocity of the origin of the child frame with respect to the parent frame.

```
MP2 = struct();
MP2.Frame = 'rectangular';
MP2.OriginPosition =[20; 10; 0];
MP2.OriginVelocity = [0; 5; 0];
```

Specify rotation using the rotation matrix converted from Euler angles. Set `IsParentToChild`

to true to indicate rotation from the parent frame to the child frame.

rotAngle2 = [90 0 0]; % [yaw,pitch,row] rotQuat2 = quaternion(rotAngle2,'Eulerd','ZYX','frame'); rotMatrix2 = rotmat(rotQuat2,'frame'); MP2.Orientation = rotMatrix2; MP2.IsParentToChild = true;

Specify measurements.

Set

`HasElevation`

and`HasAzimuth`

both to`false`

, since the child frame is rectangular.Set

`HasRange`

to`true`

to enable position measurement.Set

`HasVelocity`

to`true`

to enable velocity measurement.

MP2.HasElevation = false; MP2.HasAzimuth = false; MP2.HasRange = true; MP2.HasVelocity = true;

Create the `objectDetection`

object and specify the `MeasurementParameters`

property.

```
time2 = 0;
detection2 = objectDetection(time2,measurement2,'MeasurementParameters',MP2)
```

detection2 = objectDetection with properties: Time: 0 Measurement: [6x1 double] MeasurementNoise: [6x6 double] SensorIndex: 1 ObjectClassID: 0 MeasurementParameters: [1x1 struct] ObjectAttributes: {}

To verify the object detection, you can use the `cvmeas`

measurement function to regenerate the measurement. The `cvmeas`

function can take the actual state of the target and measurement parameters as input. The state input of `cvmeas`

is in the order of [`x;vx;y;vy;z;vz`

]. As shown in the following output, the results agree with `measurement2`

.

state2 =[10;5;20;0;0;0]; % [x;vx;y;vy;z;vz] cvmeas2 = cvmeas(state2,MP2)% [x;y;z;vx;vy;vz]

`cvmeas2 = `*6×1*
10.0000
10.0000
0
-5.0000
-5.0000
0

Consider the previous tracking scenario, only now the measurement is obtained by a scanning radar with a spherical output frame. The boresight direction of the radar is aligned with the $\mathit{Y}$ direction (same as $\mathit{x}$ direction) at $\mathit{t}$ = 0 seconds.

Since the relative velocity between the truck and the car is in the line-of-sight direction, the measurement, which is in the order of [azimuth; elevation; range; range-rate], can be obtained as follows:

`measurement3 =[45; 0; 10/sind(45); -5/sind(45)]; % [az;el;rng;rr]. Units in degrees.`

Specify the measurement parameters.

MP3 = struct(); MP3.Frame = 'spherical'; % The child frame is spherical. MP3.OriginPosition = [20; 10; 0]; MP3.OriginVelocity = [0; 5; 0]; % Specify rotation. rotAngle3 = [90 0 0]; rotQuat3 = quaternion(rotAngle3,'Eulerd','ZYX','frame'); rotMatrix3 = rotmat(rotQuat3,'frame'); MP3.Orientation = rotMatrix3; MP3.IsParentToChild = true;

Set `HasElevation`

and `HasAzimuth`

to `true`

to output azimuth and elevation angles in the spherical child frame. Set `HasRange`

and `HasVelocity`

both to `true`

to output range and range-rate, respectively.

MP3.HasElevation = true; MP3.HasAzimuth = true; MP3.HasRange = true; MP3.HasVelocity = true;

Create the `objectDetection`

object.

```
time3 = 0;
detection3 = objectDetection(time3,measurement3,'MeasurementParameters',MP3)
```

detection3 = objectDetection with properties: Time: 0 Measurement: [4x1 double] MeasurementNoise: [4x4 double] SensorIndex: 1 ObjectClassID: 0 MeasurementParameters: [1x1 struct] ObjectAttributes: {}

Verify the results using `cvmeas`

. The results agree with `measurement3.`

state3 = [10;5;20;0;0;0]; % [x;vx;y;vy;z;vz] cvmeas3 = cvmeas(state3,MP3) % [az;el;rng;rr]

`cvmeas3 = `*4×1*
45.0000
0
14.1421
-7.0711

Consider the previous tracking scenario, only now the boresight direction of the radar rotates 45 degrees from the $\mathit{x}$ direction of the car's local frame.

The new measurements, expressed in the new spherical frame {${\mathit{x}}^{\prime}$,${\mathit{y}}^{\prime}$}, are:

`measurement4 = [0; 0; 10/sind(45); -5/sind(45)]; % [az;el;rng;rr]`

For the measurement parameters, you can specify the rotation as a 135-degree rotation from the scenario frame to the new spherical frame. Alternately, you can specify it as two consecutive rotations: rectangular {$\mathit{X}$,$\mathit{Y}$} to rectangular {$\mathit{x}$,$\mathit{y}$} and rectangular {$\mathit{x}$,$\mathit{y}$} to spherical {${\mathit{x}}^{\prime}$,${\mathit{y}}^{\prime}$}. To illustrate the multiple frame transformation feature supported by the `MeasurementParameters`

property, this example uses the latter approach.

The first set of measurement parameters is exactly the same as `MP2`

used in Example 2. `MP2`

accounts for the rotation from the rectangular {$\mathit{X}$,$\mathit{Y}$} to the rectangular {$\mathit{x}$,$\mathit{y}$}. For the second set of measurement parameters, `MP4`

, you need to specify only a 45-degree rotation from the rectangular {$\mathit{x}$,$\mathit{y}$} to the spherical {${\mathit{x}}^{\prime}$,${\mathit{y}}^{\prime}$}.

MP4 = struct(); MP4.Frame = 'spherical'; MP4.OriginPosition =[0; 0; 0]; % Colocated positions. MP4.OriginVelocity = [0; 0; 0]; % Same origin velocities. % Specify rotation. rotAngle4 = [45 0 0]; rotQuat4 = quaternion(rotAngle4,'Eulerd','ZYX','frame'); rotMatrix4 = rotmat(rotQuat4,'frame'); MP4.Orientation = rotMatrix4; MP4.IsParentToChild = true; % Specify outputs in the spherical child frame. MP4.HasElevation = true; MP4.HasAzimuth = true; MP4.HasRange = true; MP4.HasVelocity = true;

Create the combined `MeasurementParameters`

input, `MPc`

.

MPc =[MP4 MP2];

Create the `objectDetection`

object.

```
time4 = 0;
detection4 = objectDetection(time4,measurement4,'MeasurementParameters',MPc)
```

detection4 = objectDetection with properties: Time: 0 Measurement: [4x1 double] MeasurementNoise: [4x4 double] SensorIndex: 1 ObjectClassID: 0 MeasurementParameters: [1x2 struct] ObjectAttributes: {}

Verify the results using `cvmeas`

. The result agrees with `measurement4.`

state4 = [10;5;20;0;0;0]; % [x;vx;y;vy;z;vz] cvmeas4 = cvmeas(state4,MPc) % [az;el;rr;rrate]

`cvmeas4 = `*4×1*
0.0000
0
14.1421
-7.0711

Consider an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) monitoring a region. At $\mathit{t}$ = 0 seconds, the UAV is at the position of (5,5,-1) km with respect to the global north-east-down (NED) frame. The velocity of the UAV is (-50,-100,5) m/s. The orientation of the UAV body frame {$\mathit{x}$,$\mathit{y}$,$\mathit{z}$} with respect to the global NED frame is given as (-120,2,2) degrees in yaw, pitch, and roll. At the same time, a car at the position of (1,1,0) km is moving east with a speed of 30 m/s. The UAV measures the car using a radar system aligned with its own body axis.

Based on this information, specify the kinematic parameters for the measurement transformation.

Specify the frame type, origin position, and origin velocity of the UAV body frame.

```
MP5 = struct();
MP5.Frame = 'spherical';
MP5.OriginPosition = [5000; 5000; -1000];
MP5.OriginVelocity = [-50; -100; 5];
```

Specify the rotation from the NED frame to the UAV body frame.

Rot_angle5 = [-120 2 2]; % [yaw,pitch,roll] Rot_quat5 = quaternion(Rot_angle5,'Eulerd','ZYX','frame'); Rot_matrix5 = rotmat(Rot_quat5,'frame'); MP5.Orientation = Rot_matrix5; MP5.IsParentToChild = true;

Specify the output measurements in a spherical frame.

MP5.HasElevation = true; MP5.HasAzimuth = true; MP5.HasRange = true; MP5.HasVelocity = true;

You can obtain the measurement directly from the radar system on the UAV. Use the `cvmeas`

function is to obtain the measurement. The measurement is in the order of [azimuth;elevation;range;range-rate].

```
car_state5 = [1000;0;1000;30;0;0]; % [x;vx;y;vy;z;vz].
measurement5 = cvmeas(car_state5,MP5);
meas_az5 = measurement5(1)
```

meas_az5 = -14.6825

meas_el5 = measurement5(2)

meas_el5 = 12.4704

meas_rng5 = measurement5(3)

meas_rng5 = 5.7446e+03

meas_rr5 = measurement5(4)

meas_rr5 = -126.2063

The elevation angle is defined as an angle from the xy-plane to the z direction. That is why the elevation angle is positive for a target on the ground relative to the UAV. This convention is used throughout the toolbox.

The measurement noise for azimuth, elevation, range, and range-rate is [1,1,20,2], respectively. Also, the index of the radar is 2, and the radar can classify the detected object as 1 for the type of '`car'`

.

index5 = 2; covariance5 = diag([1;1;20;2]); classID5 = 1;

Create an `objectDetection`

object for the detection.

time5 = 0; detection = objectDetection(time5,measurement5,'SensorIndex',index5,... 'MeasurementNoise',covariance5,'ObjectClassID',classID5,'MeasurementParameters',MP5)

detection = objectDetection with properties: Time: 0 Measurement: [4x1 double] MeasurementNoise: [4x4 double] SensorIndex: 2 ObjectClassID: 1 MeasurementParameters: [1x1 struct] ObjectAttributes: {}