# norm

Norm of linear model

## Description

example

n = norm(sys) or n = norm(sys,2) returns the root-mean-squares of the impulse response of the linear dynamic system model sys. This value is equivalent to the H2 norm of sys.

n = norm(sys,Inf) returns the L norm (Control System Toolbox) of sys, which is the peak gain of the frequency response of sys across frequencies. For MIMO systems, this quantity is the peak gain over all frequencies and all input directions, which corresponds to the peak value of the largest singular value of sys. For stable systems, the L norm is equivalent to the H norm. For more information, see hinfnorm (Robust Control Toolbox).

example

[n,fpeak] = norm(sys,Inf) also returns the frequency fpeak at which the gain reaches its peak value.

[n,fpeak] = norm(sys,Inf,tol) sets the relative accuracy of the L norm to tol.

This command requires a Control System Toolbox™ license.

## Examples

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Compute the ${H}_{2}$ and ${L}_{\infty }$ norms of the following discrete-time transfer function, with sample time 0.1 second.

$sys\left(z\right)=\frac{{z}^{3}-2.841{z}^{2}+2.875z-1.004}{{z}^{3}-2.417{z}^{2}+2.003z-0.5488}.$

Compute the ${H}_{2}$ norm of the transfer function. The ${H}_{2}$ norm is the root-mean-square of the impulse response of sys.

sys = tf([1 -2.841 2.875 -1.004],[1 -2.417 2.003 -0.5488],0.1);
n2 = norm(sys)
n2 = 1.2438

Compute the ${L}_{\infty }$ norm of the transfer function.

[ninf,fpeak] = norm(sys,Inf)
ninf = 2.5721
fpeak = 3.0178

Because sys is a stable system, ninf is the peak gain of the frequency response of sys, and fpeak is the frequency at which the peak gain occurs. Confirm these values using getPeakGain.

[gpeak,fpeak] = getPeakGain(sys)
gpeak = 2.5721
fpeak = 3.0178

## Input Arguments

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Input dynamic system, specified as any SISO or MIMO linear dynamic system model or model array. sys can be continuous-time or discrete-time.

Relative accuracy of the H norm, specified as a positive real scalar value.

## Output Arguments

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H2 norm or L norm of sys, returned as a scalar or an array.

• If sys is a single model, then n is a scalar value.

• If sys is a model array, then n is an array of the same size as sys, where n(k) = norm(sys(:,:,k)).

Frequency at which the gain achieves the peak value gpeak, returned as a real scalar value or an array of real values. The frequency is expressed in units of rad/TimeUnit, relative to the TimeUnit property of sys.

• If sys is a single model, then fpeak is a scalar.

• If sys is a model array, then fpeak is an array of the same size as sys, where fpeak(k) is the peak gain frequency of sys(:,:,k).

fpeak can be negative for systems with complex coefficients.

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### H2 norm

The H2 norm of a stable system H is the root-mean-square of the impulse response of the system. The H2 norm measures the steady-state covariance (or power) of the output response y = Hw to unit white noise inputs w:

The H2 norm of a continuous-time system with transfer function H(s) is given by:

For a discrete-time system with transfer function H(z), the H2 norm is given by:

${‖H‖}_{2}=\sqrt{\frac{1}{2\pi }{\int }_{-\pi }^{\pi }\text{Trace}\left[H{\left({e}^{j\omega }\right)}^{H}H\left({e}^{j\omega }\right)\right]d\omega }.$

The H2 norm is infinite in the following cases:

• sys is unstable.

• sys is continuous and has a nonzero feedthrough (that is, nonzero gain at the frequency ω = ∞).

Using norm(sys) produces the same result as sqrt(trace(covar(sys,1))).

### L-infinity norm

The L norm of a SISO linear system is the peak gain of the frequency response. For a MIMO system, the L norm is the peak gain across all input/output channels.

For a continuous-time system H(s), this definition means:

where σmax(·) denotes the largest singular value of a matrix.

For a discrete-time system H(z), the definition means:

For stable systems, the L norm is equivalent to the H norm. For more information, see hinfnorm (Robust Control Toolbox). For a system with unstable poles, the H norm is infinite. For all systems, norm returns the L norm, which is the peak gain without regard to system stability.

## Algorithms

After converting sys to a state space model, norm uses the same algorithm as covar (Control System Toolbox) for the H2 norm. For the L norm, norm uses the algorithm of [1]. norm computes the peak gain using the SLICOT library. For more information about the SLICOT library, see http://slicot.org.

## References

[1] Bruinsma, N.A., and M. Steinbuch. "A Fast Algorithm to Compute the H Norm of a Transfer Function Matrix." Systems & Control Letters, 14, no.4 (April 1990): 287–93.

## Version History

Introduced before R2006a