# mldivide, \

Solve systems of linear equations *Ax = B* for *x*

## Syntax

## Description

solves the system of linear equations `x`

= `A`

\`B`

```
A*x =
B
```

. The matrices `A`

and
`B`

must have the same number of
rows. MATLAB^{®} displays a warning message if
`A`

is badly scaled or nearly
singular, but performs the calculation regardless.

If

`A`

is a scalar, then`A\B`

is equivalent to`A.\B`

.If

`A`

is a square`n`

-by-`n`

matrix and`B`

is a matrix with`n`

rows, then`x = A\B`

is a solution to the equation`A*x = B`

, if it exists.If

`A`

is a rectangular`m`

-by-`n`

matrix with`m ~= n`

, and`B`

is a matrix with`m`

rows, then`A`

\`B`

returns a least-squares solution to the system of equations`A*x= B`

.`x`

may not be the minimum-norm solution.

## Examples

## Input Arguments

## Output Arguments

## Tips

The operators

`/`

and`\`

are related to each other by the equation`B/A = (A'\B')'`

.If

`A`

is a square matrix, then`A\B`

is roughly equal to`inv(A)*B`

, but MATLAB processes`A\B`

differently and more robustly.If the rank of

`A`

is less than the number of columns in`A`

, then`x = A\B`

is not necessarily the minimum-norm solution. You can compute the minimum-norm least-squares solution using`x =`

or`lsqminnorm`

(A,B)`x =`

.`pinv`

(A)*BUse

`decomposition`

objects to efficiently solve a linear system multiple times with different right-hand sides.`decomposition`

objects are well-suited to solving problems that require repeated solutions, since the decomposition of the coefficient matrix does not need to be performed multiple times.

## Algorithms

## References

[1] Gilbert, John R., and
Tim Peierls. “Sparse Partial Pivoting in Time Proportional to Arithmetic
Operations.” *SIAM Journal on Scientific and Statistical
Computing* 9, no. 5 (September 1988): 862–874. https://doi.org/10.1137/0909058.

[2] Anderson, E., ed.
*LAPACK Users’ Guide*. 3rd ed.
Software, Environments, Tools. Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and
Applied Mathematics, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1137/1.9780898719604.

[3] Davis, Timothy A.
"Algorithm 832: UMFPACK V4.3 – an unsymmetric-pattern multifrontal method."
*ACM Transactions on Mathematical
Software* 30, no. 2 (June 2004): 196–199. https://doi.org/10.1145/992200.992206.

[4] Duff, Iain S.
“MA57---a Code for the Solution of Sparse Symmetric Definite and Indefinite
Systems.” *ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software*
30, no. 2 (June 2004): 118–144. https://doi.org/10.1145/992200.992202.

[5] Davis, Timothy A.,
John R. Gilbert, Stefan I. Larimore, and Esmond G. Ng. “Algorithm 836:
COLAMD, a Column Approximate Minimum Degree Ordering Algorithm.”
*ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software* 30,
no. 3 (September 2004): 377–380. https://doi.org/10.1145/1024074.1024080.

[6] Amestoy, Patrick R.,
Timothy A. Davis, and Iain S. Duff. “Algorithm 837: AMD, an Approximate
Minimum Degree Ordering Algorithm.” *ACM Transactions on
Mathematical Software* 30, no. 3 (September 2004):
381–388. https://doi.org/10.1145/1024074.1024081.

[7] Chen, Yanqing, Timothy
A. Davis, William W. Hager, and Sivasankaran Rajamanickam. “Algorithm 887:
CHOLMOD, Supernodal Sparse Cholesky Factorization and Update/Downdate.”
*ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software* 35,
no. 3 (October 2008): 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1145/1391989.1391995.

[8] Davis, Timothy A.
“Algorithm 915, SuiteSparseQR: Multifrontal Multithreaded Rank-Revealing
Sparse QR Factorization.” *ACM Transactions on Mathematical
Software* 38, no. 1 (November 2011): 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1145/2049662.2049670.

## Extended Capabilities

## Version History

**Introduced before R2006a**