`[ ] `
| Brackets are used to form vectors and matrices. ```
[6.9
9.64 sqrt(-1)]
``` is a vector with three elements separated
by blanks. `[6.9, 9.64, i]` is the same thing. ```
[1+j
2-j 3]
``` and `[1 +j 2 -j 3]` are not the
same. The first has three elements, the second has five. ```
[11
12 13; 21 22 23]
``` is a 2-by-3 matrix. The semicolon ends
the first row.
Vectors and matrices can be used inside ```
[
]
``` brackets. `[A B;C]` is allowed if the
number of rows of `A` equals the number of rows of `B` and
the number of columns of `A` plus the number of columns
of `B` equals the number of columns of `C` .
This rule generalizes to allow fairly complicated constructions. ```
A
= [ ]
``` stores an empty matrix in `A` . ```
A(m,:)
= [ ]
``` deletes row `m` of `A` . ```
A(:,n)
= [ ]
``` deletes column `n` of `A` . ```
A(n)
= [ ]
``` reshapes `A` into a column vector
and deletes the `n` th element.
```
[A1,A2,A3...]
= function
``` assigns function output to multiple variables.
For
the use of `[` and `]` on the left
of an "`=` " in multiple assignment
statements, see `lu` , `eig` , `svd` ,
and so on. |

`{ } `
| Curly braces are used in cell array assignment statements.
For example, `A(2,1) = {[1 2 3; 4 5 6]}` , or ```
A{2,2}
= ('str')
``` . See `help paren` for more information
about `{ }` . |

`( ) `
| Parentheses are used to indicate precedence in arithmetic
expressions in the usual way. They are used to enclose arguments of
functions in the usual way. They are also used to enclose subscripts
of vectors and matrices in a manner somewhat more general than usual.
If `X` and `V` are vectors, then `X(V)` is ```
[X(V(1)),
X(V(2)), ..., X(V(n))]
``` . The components of `V` must
be integers to be used as subscripts. An error occurs if any such
subscript is less than 1 or greater than the size of `X` .
Some examples are `X(3)` is the third element of `X` .
`X([1 2 3])` is the first three elements
of `X` .
See `help paren` for more information about ```
(
)
``` .
If `X` has `n` components, `X(n:–1:1)` reverses
them. The same indirect subscripting works in matrices. If `V` has `m` components
and `W` has `n` components, then `A(V,W)` is
the `m` -by-`n` matrix formed from
the elements of `A` whose subscripts are the elements
of `V` and `W` . For example, ```
A([1,5],:)
= A([5,1],:)
``` interchanges rows 1 and 5 of `A` . |

`= `
| Used in assignment statements. `B = A` stores
the elements of `A` in `B` . `==` is
the relational equals operator. See the Relational Operations page. |

`' `
| Matrix transpose. `X'` is
the complex conjugate transpose of `X` . `X.'` is
the nonconjugate transpose. Quotation mark. ```
'any
text'
``` is a vector whose components are the ASCII codes for
the characters. A quotation mark within the text is indicated by two
quotation marks. |

`. `
| Decimal
point. `314/100` , `3.14` , and `.314e1` are
all the same. Element-by-element operations. These are
obtained using `.` * , `.^` , `./` ,
or `.\` . See the Arithmetic Operators page. |

`. `
| Field access. `S(m).f` when `S` is
a structure, accesses the contents of field `f` of
that structure. |

`.( )`
| Dynamic Field access. `S.(df)` when `S` is
a structure, accesses the contents of dynamic field `df` of
that structure. Dynamic field names are defined at runtime. |

`.. `
| Parent folder. See `cd` . |

`... `
| Continuation. Three or more
periods at the end of a line continue the current function on the
next line. Three or more periods before the end of a line cause the MATLAB^{®} software
to ignore the remaining text on the current line and continue the
function on the next line. This effectively makes a comment out of
anything on the current line that follows the three periods. For an
example, see Continue Long Statements on Multiple Lines. |

`, `
| Comma. Used to separate matrix subscripts and function
arguments. Used to separate statements in multistatement lines. For
multistatement lines, the comma can be replaced by a semicolon to
suppress printing. |

`; `
| Semicolon. Used inside brackets to end rows. Used after
an expression or statement to suppress printing or to separate statements. |

`: `
| Colon. Create vectors, array subscripting, and `for` loop
iterations. See `colon` for
details. |

`% `
| Percent.
The percent symbol denotes a comment; it indicates a logical end of
line. Any following text is ignored. MATLAB displays the first
contiguous comment lines in a function or script file in response
to a `help` command. |

`%{ %}`
| Percent-brace. The text enclosed within
the `%{` and `%}` symbols is a comment
block. Use these symbols to insert comments that take up more than
a single line in your script of function code. Any text between these
two symbols is ignored by MATLAB. With the exception
of whitespace characters, the %{ and %} operators must appear alone
on the lines that immediately precede and follow the block of help
text. Do not include any other text on these lines. |

`! `
| Exclamation
point. Indicates that the rest of the input line is issued as a command
to the operating system. See Run External Commands, Scripts, and Programs for more
information. |

`@ `
| Function handle. MATLAB data type that is a handle
to a function. See Create Function Handle for details. |