Hydraulic orifice with constant cross-sectional area

Hydraulic Elements

The Constant Area Hydraulic Orifice block models a sharp-edged constant-area orifice. The flow rate through the orifice is proportional to the pressure differential across the orifice, and is determined according to the following equations:

$$q={C}_{D}\cdot A\sqrt{\frac{2}{\rho}}\cdot \frac{p}{{\left({p}^{2}+{p}_{cr}^{2}\right)}^{1/4}}$$

$$p={p}_{A}-{p}_{B}$$

where

q | Flow rate |

p | Pressure differential |

p_{A}, p_{B} | Gauge pressures at the block terminals |

C_{D} | Flow discharge coefficient |

A | Orifice passage area |

ρ | Fluid density |

p_{cr} | Minimum pressure for turbulent flow, when the block transitions from laminar to turbulent regime |

The minimum pressure for turbulent flow, *p*_{cr},
is calculated according to the laminar transition specification method:

By pressure ratio — The transition from laminar to turbulent regime is defined by the following equations:

*p*_{cr}= (*p*_{avg}+*p*_{atm})(1 –*B*_{lam})*p*_{avg}= (*p*_{A}+*p*_{B})/2where

*p*_{avg}Average pressure between the block terminals *p*_{atm}Atmospheric pressure, 101325 Pa *B*_{lam}Pressure ratio at the transition between laminar and turbulent regimes ( **Laminar flow pressure ratio**parameter value)By Reynolds number — The transition from laminar to turbulent regime is defined by the following equations:

$${p}_{cr}=\frac{\rho}{2}{\left(\frac{{\mathrm{Re}}_{cr}\cdot \nu}{{C}_{D}\cdot {D}_{H}}\right)}^{2}$$

$${D}_{H}=\sqrt{\frac{4A}{\pi}}$$

where

*D*_{H}Orifice hydraulic diameter *ν*Fluid kinematic viscosity *Re*_{cr}Critical Reynolds number ( **Critical Reynolds number**parameter value)

The block positive direction is from port A to port B. This means that the flow rate is positive if it flows from A to B, and the pressure differential is determined as $$p={p}_{A}-{p}_{B}$$.

To set the priority and initial target values for the block variables prior to simulation, use
the **Variables** tab in the block dialog box (or the
**Variables** section in the block Property Inspector). For more
information, see Set Priority and Initial Target for Block Variables.

Fluid inertia is not taken into account.

**Orifice area**Orifice passage area. The default value is

`1e-4`

m^2.**Flow discharge coefficient**Semi-empirical parameter for orifice capacity characterization. Its value depends on the geometrical properties of the orifice, and usually is provided in textbooks or manufacturer data sheets. The default value is

`0.7`

.**Laminar transition specification**Select how the block transitions between the laminar and turbulent regimes:

`Pressure ratio`

— The transition from laminar to turbulent regime is smooth and depends on the value of the**Laminar flow pressure ratio**parameter. This method provides better simulation robustness.`Reynolds number`

— The transition from laminar to turbulent regime is assumed to take place when the Reynolds number reaches the value specified by the**Critical Reynolds number**parameter.

**Laminar flow pressure ratio**Pressure ratio at which the flow transitions between laminar and turbulent regimes. The default value is

`0.999`

. This parameter is visible only if the**Laminar transition specification**parameter is set to`Pressure ratio`

.**Critical Reynolds number**The maximum Reynolds number for laminar flow. The value of the parameter depends on the orifice geometrical profile. You can find recommendations on the parameter value in hydraulics textbooks. The default value is

`12`

, which corresponds to a round orifice in thin material with sharp edges. This parameter is visible only if the**Laminar transition specification**parameter is set to`Reynolds number`

.

Parameters determined by the type of working fluid:

**Fluid density****Fluid kinematic viscosity**

Use the Hydraulic Fluid block or the Custom Hydraulic Fluid block to specify the fluid properties.

The block has the following ports:

`A`

Hydraulic conserving port associated with the orifice inlet.

`B`

Hydraulic conserving port associated with the orifice outlet.

[1] Meritt, H.E. *Hydraulic Control
Systems*. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1967.