You can use the RF Budget Analyzer app to compute the per-stage and cumulative gain, noise figure, and third intercept point (IP3) for a system of RF elements. Export the computed values to the MATLAB^{®} workspace. Simulate the system using SimRF™. Verify the gain, noise figure, and IP3 using the SimRF testbench simulation. To learn how to use the app, seeSuperheterodyne Receiver Using RF Budget Analyzer App.
You can use the lcladder
class
to create LC filters, calculate the S-parameters of the filters, and
add the filters to an RF Toolbox™ circuit object.
You can use the groupdelay
function
to calculate the group delay of the S-parameters object and these
RF network elements: nport, circuit, and LC ladder.
You can create tparameter objects from touchstone files, network
parameters, and rfdata.network objects using the tparameters
data
object function.
rfplot
Improvements: Plot real, imaginary, magnitude, or angle dataYou can now use the rfplot
function
to specify the types of plot such as decibels (default), real, imaginary,
absolute, or angle.
You can now compute the gain
, noise
figure
, oip3
, and iip3
of
cascaded networks using the rfchain object.
Display the stage-by-stage results in a spreadsheet format using the worksheet
method.
Visualize the results using the plot
method.
You can now use the deembedsparams function to de-embed 2N-port fixture effects from 2N-port measurements. It supports both three-dimensional S-parameters data and S-parameter objects.
You can use the rfwrite function to write Touchstone files from three-dimensional network parameter data or any network parameter object (S-parameters, Y-parameters, Z-parameters, ABCD-parameters, etc.)
rationalfit
function at least six times fasterThe rationalfit function now fits a rational model to S-parameter data at least six times faster than previous releases. This responsiveness improves both RF Toolbox command-line behavior and SimRF simulation of S-parameter blocks.
In R2013b, the following new functions are available:
resistor, capacitor, inductor, and circuit — Use the basic building functions of an RF circuit to construct RLC networks.
add — Insert basic RF elements to a circuit.
clone — Duplicate any existing RF elements or circuits.
setports — Define node pairs as ports of a circuit.
setterminals — Map the nodes of a circuit to terminals.
The sparameters function now includes added functionality that you can use to calculate the S-parameters of RLC networks.
rationalfit
function This release introduces additional pole-searching optimizations
to the rationalfit
function
algorithm. Models that the function returns in this release tend to
have fewer poles than those in previous releases.
To constrain the function results across releases and machine architectures, explicitly specify optional parameters such as error tolerance and number of poles when you call the function. Given a data set and corresponding frequencies, the function attempts to calculate a rational function approximation to within a given specification. However, the exact model that the function returns can differ between releases and machines, as the algorithm improves.
New network parameter objects and functions are available, with support for:
Reading Touchstone files
Converting network parameters
Plotting network parameters
Additionally, some functions have been updated to support the new interface. For more information, see RF Network Parameter Objects.
rationalfit
functionThe rationalfit
function
now supports using name-value pairs for optional input arguments.
Name-value pair arguments can be specified in any order and improve
readability of code.
S-parameter conversion functions have been enhanced to support larger data sets. The following functions now support conversion between parameter sets of 2N-port networks.
The s2smm
function
now supports mixed-mode conversions for N-port
devices.
The following mixed-mode S-parameter functions now support mixed-mode conversions for 2N-port devices:
Two new signal-integrity demos are available in this version.
The Bandpass Filter Response demo
describes a procedure for designing and analyzing a simple bandpass
filter using rfckt
objects.
The MOS Interconnect and Crosstalk demo reproduces Pillage and Rohrer's classic result from "Waveform Evaluation for Timing Analysis".
The rationalfit
function
has improved robustness, speed, and accuracy in this version.
The OpenIF
object
supports a new partial workflow for multiband transmitter or receiver
design. Use these objects to analyze intermediate frequencies (IFs)
that do not produce interference (spurs) in operating bands.
The rationalfit
function
has improved robustness, speed, and accuracy in this version.
Some default values of rationalfit
have changed.
For more information, see the function reference page.
For R2011b, error and warning messages identifiers have changed in RF Toolbox software.
If you have scripts or functions that use message identifiers that changed, you must update the code to use the new identifiers. Typically, message identifiers are used to turn off specific warning messages, or in code that uses a try/catch statement and performs an action based on a specific error identifier.
For example, the rf:rfckt:seriesrlc:setpositive:NotAPositive
identifier
has changed to rf:rfbase:rfbase:setpositive:NotAPositive
.
If your code checks for rf:rfckt:seriesrlc:setpositive:NotAPositive
,
you must update it to check for rf:rfbase:rfbase:setpositive:NotAPositive
instead.
To determine the identifier for a warning, run the following command just after you see the warning:
[MSG,MSGID] = lastwarn;
This command saves the message identifier to the variable MSGID
.
To determine the identifier for an error, run the following command just after you see the error:
exception = MException.last; MSGID = exception.identifier;
Note: Warning messages indicate a potential issue with your code. While you can turn off a warning, a suggested alternative is to change your code so it runs warning-free. |
An improved algorithm for the rationalfit
function
fits an accurate rational model to passive S-parameter data in less
time than in previous versions. In addition, a new parameter specifies
the number of iterations rationalfit
attempts
at each value for the number of poles.
Default behavior for some parameters have changed:
The number-of-poles argument npoles
defaults
to a minimum value of 0
in version 2.8, instead
of 4
, as in previous versions.
rationalfit
does not display
a wait bar by default in this version. A new showwaitbar
parameter
allows you to specify whether rationalfit
displays
a wait bar.
For more information on using this function, see the rationalfit
reference
page.
RF Toolbox version 2.8 extends the Plots and Charts methods to include:
Support for third-order intercept point and transducer
power gain parameters, IIP3
and Gt
.
A new method, table
,
for visualizing network data in the Variable Editor.
The makepassive
function
creates passive S-Parameters from any S-parameter array. Use this
function to enforce strict numerical passivity on an array of S-parameters
that represents a passive device.
The Modeling a High-Speed Backplane (Part 3: 4-Port S-Parameters to Differential TDR and TDT) demo shows how to perform time-domain reflectometry (TDR) and time-domain transmission (TDT) analysis on network data.
The ispassive
function
checks the passivity of N-port S-parameter matrices.
The s2tf
function
can now calculate the power-wave gain of 2-port S-parameters. Calculation
in terms of voltage is still the default option.
There are two new functions for converting between 4N-port single-ended S-parameter matrices and 2N-port mixed-mode S-parameter matrices:
The s2smm
function
lets you convert 4N-port single-ended S-parameters to 2N-port mixed-mode
S-parameters. You can view the 2N-port output data to see interactions,
such as crosstalk, that are not apparent in the single-ended data.
This lets you easily select the ports of interest for further analysis.
The smm2s
function
lets you convert 2N-port mixed-mode S-parameters to 4N-port single-ended
S-parameters.
The following objects now provide a more realistic model for dielectric loss:
To specify dielectric loss, you use a new property, LossTangent
.
This property replaces the SigmaDiel
parameter.
Your existing objects with a nonzero value for the SigmaDiel
parameter
no longer model dielectric loss. Instead, the objects issue a warning
message and use the default value of zero for the LossTangent
property
when you use the analyze
method.
Two new demos show how to design broadband impedance matching networks for RF components:
Designing Broadband Matching Networks (Part 1: Antenna) shows how to design a matching network for an antenna.
Designing Broadband Matching Networks (Part 2: Amplifier) shows how to design a matching network for an amplifier.
You can now use the cascadesparams
function
to cascade the S-parameters of an arbitrary number of N-port devices
to form a network. The function lets you specify how to connect the
ports of each N-port device to the ports of the subsequent N-port
device in the cascade. For more information about the function, see
the cascadesparams
reference
page.
The plotyy
method now uses a more intuitive
approach when determining how to plot the specified parameters if
you do not specify the plot format. For more information about the
function, see the plotyy
reference
page.
Use the new z2gamma
function
to convert impedance values to reflection coefficients.
A new demo, Writing
a Touchstone File, shows how to write rfckt
object
data to an industry-standard Touchstone data file.
Modeling
a High-Speed Backplane (Part 2: 4-Port S-Parameters to a Rational
Function Model) now uses the new Communications
Toolbox™ eye diagram scope, commscope.eyediagram
,
to plot the eye diagram.
Use the new snp2smp
function
to convert N-port S-parameter data and termination impedances to M-port
S-parameters.
Use the new circle
method
to place circles on a Smith^{®} Chart
to depict stability regions and display constant gain, noise figure,
reflection, and immitance circles.
Use the new powergain
function
to compute various power gains of a 2-port network.
The smith
method
now lets you plot the network parameters of devices with more than
two ports on a Smith Chart.
Modeling a High-Speed Backplane (Part 1: Measured 16-Port S-Parameters to 4-Port S-Parameters) is the new first part of a four-part demo on "Modeling a High-Speed Backplane." The new demo shows how to extract 4-port S-parameter data from 16-port S-parameter data. The original three parts of the demo are now parts 2, 3, and 4.
The following demos replace the "Designing Impedance
Matching Networks" and "Placing Circles on a Smith Chart" demos, respectively,
and show how to use the new circle
method:
Designing Matching Networks (Part 1: Networks with an LNA and Lumped Elements) uses the available gain design technique to design a low-noise amplifier for a wireless communication system.
Designing Matching Networks (Part 2: Single Stub Transmission Lines) shows how to design input and output matching networks for an amplifier.
The rfckt.amplifier
and rfckt.mixer
objects
now let you import system-level verification models of amplifiers
and mixers, respectively, using data from Agilent^{®} P2D and S2D
files.
Use P2D files to specify the following data for multiple operating conditions, such as temperature and bias values:
Small-signal network parameters
Power-dependent network parameters
Noise data
Intermodulation tables
Use S2D files to specify the following data for multiple operating conditions:
Small-signal network parameters
Gain compression (1 dB)
Third-order intercept point (IP3)
Power-dependent S_{21} parameters
Noise data
Intermodulation tables
You can import an intermodulation table into an rfckt.mixer
object.
The object's plot
method
has a new option for plotting mixer spur data.
Use the new timeresp
method
of the rfmodel.rational
object
to compute the time response of an rfmodel
object
to a specified input signal. Use this method rather than computing
impulse response with the impulse
method and
then convolving that response with the input signal because the timeresp
method
generally gives a more accurate output signal for a given input signal.
Four new plotting methods provide additional plotting options:
Use the plotyy
method
of the rfckt
class to create a plot that contains
RF circuit object data on both the left and right Y-axes.
Use the loglog
method
of the rfckt
class to plot RF circuit object
data on a log-log scale.
Use the semilogx
method
of the rfckt
class to plot RF circuit object
data using a logarithmic scale for the X-axis.
Use the semilogy
method
of the rfckt
class to plot RF circuit object
data using a logarithmic scale for the Y-axis.
Use the new gamma2z
function
to compute input impedance from a reflection coefficient.
Tab completion is now available in the MATLAB command window for all functions and methods. For more information on tab completion, see the MATLAB documentation.
Data tips are now available for any RF plot. For more information on data tips, see Data Cursor — Displaying Data Values Interactively in the MATLAB documentation.
Visualizing Mixer Spurs shows how to use the toolbox to perform mixer spur analysis using data from an intermodulation table and then plot the output power spectrum of the desired signal and the undesired spurs.
Modeling
a High-Speed Backplane (Part 1: Measured 4-Port S-Parameters to a
Rational Function Model) now uses the timeresp
method
to compute the time-domain response of a system characterized by measured
data.
Modeling a High-Speed
Backplane (Part 2: Rational Function Model to Simulink Model) now
includes code that you can use to generate a Simulink^{®} model for
any rfmodel.rational
object.
Use the s2tf
function
to convert 2-port scattering parameters into a transfer function that
represents the normalized voltage gain of a 2-port network.
Use objects from the rfmodel
class to represent
components and networks with mathematical equations. The rfmodel.rational
object
stores a rational function model of a component or network.
Use the rationalfit
function
to fit a rational function to passive data that represents an RF component
or network and then store the result in an rfmodel.rational
object.
This type of model is useful to signal integrity engineers, whose
goal is to reliably connect high-speed semiconductor devices with,
for example, multi-Gbit/s serial data streams across backplanes and
printed circuit boards.
Use the writeva
method
of the rfmodel
class to export a description
of an RF component or network for use in a time-domain circuit simulator.
"Modeling a High-Speed Backplane (Part 1: Measured 4-Port S-Parameters to a Rational Function Model)" shows how to use the toolbox to model a differential high-speed backplane using rational functions.
"Modeling a High-Speed Backplane (Part 2: Rational Function Model to a Verilog-A Module)" shows how to use toolbox functions to generate a Verilog-A module that models the high-level behavior of a high-speed backplane.
"Modeling a Differential High-Speed Backplane in Simulink" shows how to use Simulink to simulate a differential high-speed backplane.
Use the s2scc
function
to convert 4-port, single-ended S-parameters to 2-port, common mode
S-parameters.
Use the s2scd
function
to convert 4-port, single-ended S-parameters to 2-port, cross mode
S-parameters.
Use the s2sdc
function
to convert 4-port, single-ended S-parameters to 2-port, cross mode
S-parameters.
Use the s2sdd
function
to convert 4-port, single-ended S-parameters to 2-port, differential
mode S-parameters.
Use the extract
function
to extract specified network parameters from a circuit or data object
and return the result in an array.
The new Freq
property of the circuit object, rfckt.txline
,
is a vector of positive frequencies at which the parameter values
are known.
The Loss
, PV
, and ZO
properties
of the circuit object, rfckt.txline
, can now be
vectors of line loss, phase velocity, and characteristic impedance
values that correspond to the frequencies specified in the Freq
property.
The new IntpType
property of the circuit
object, rfckt.txline
, is the interpolation method
used to calculate the parameter values between the known frequencies.
In earlier versions, a plot figure would appear in a separate window after clicking the Plot button. In this version, plot figures are integrated into the GUI itself.
These objects can be used to store rfdata such as network parameters, noise figure, power, IP3, and spot noise.
Use rfckt.delay
to
model delay lines, rfckt.hybridg
to
model hybrid G connected networks, and rfckt.passive
to
model RF passive networks.
The new write
method allows saving of RF
network data into files for all rfckt
objects.
The new methods, read
and restore
,
read and restore data for rfckt.datafile
, rfckt.amplifier
,
and rfckt.mixer
.
The analyze
method now takes three additional
optional inputs for the load, source, and reference impedances.
Release | Features or Changes with Compatibility Considerations |
---|---|
R2016a | None |
R2015b | None |
R2015a | None |
R2014b | None |
R2014a | None |
R2013b | None |
R2013a | Improved rationalfit function |
R2012b | None |
R2012a | None |
R2011b | |
R2011a | None |
R2010b | Enhanced Rational Function Modeling |
R2010a | None |
R2009b | None |
R2009a | Enhanced Dielectric Loss Model in Three Transmission Line Objects |
R2008b | None |
R2008a | None |
R2007b | None |
R2007a | None |
R2006b | None |
R2006a | None |
R14SP3 | None |
R14SP2 | None |
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