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Impulse invariance method for analog-to-digital filter conversion


[bz,az] = impinvar(b,a,fs)
[bz,az] = impinvar(b,a,fs,tol)


[bz,az] = impinvar(b,a,fs) creates a digital filter with numerator and denominator coefficients bz and az, respectively, whose impulse response is equal to the impulse response of the analog filter with coefficients b and a, scaled by 1/fs. If you leave out the argument fs, or specify fs as the empty vector [], it takes the default value of 1 Hz.

[bz,az] = impinvar(b,a,fs,tol) uses the tolerance specified by tol to determine whether poles are repeated. A larger tolerance increases the likelihood that impinvar interprets closely located poles as multiplicities (repeated ones). The default is 0.001, or 0.1% of a pole's magnitude. The accuracy of the pole values is still limited to the accuracy obtainable by the roots function.


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Convert a sixth-order analog Butterworth lowpass filter to a digital filter using impulse invariance. Specify a sample rate of 10 Hz and a cutoff frequency of 2 Hz. Display the frequency response of the filter.

f = 2;
fs = 10;

[b,a] = butter(6,2*pi*f,'s');
[bz,az] = impinvar(b,a,fs);


Convert a fourth-order analog elliptic filter to a digital filter using impulse invariance. Specify a sample rate Hz, a passband edge frequency of 2.5 Hz, a passband ripple of 1 dB, and a stopband attenuation of 60 dB. Display the impulse response of the digital filter.

fs = 10;

[b,a] = ellip(3,1,60,2*pi*2.5,'s');
[bz,az] = impinvar(b,a,fs);


Derive the impulse response of the analog filter by finding the residues, , and poles, , of the transfer function and inverting the Laplace transform explicitly using

Overlay the impulse response of the analog filter. Impulse invariance introduces a gain of to the digital filter. Multiply the analog impulse response by this gain to enable meaningful comparison.

[r,p] = residue(b,a);
t = linspace(0,4,1000);
h = real(r.'*exp(p.*t)/fs);

hold on
hold off


impinvar performs the impulse-invariant method of analog-to-digital transfer function conversion discussed in reference [1]:

  1. It finds the partial fraction expansion of the system represented by b and a.

  2. It replaces the poles p by the poles exp(p/fs).

  3. It finds the transfer function coefficients of the system from the residues from step 1 and the poles from step 2.


[1] Parks, Thomas W., and C. Sidney Burrus. Digital Filter Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

[2] Antoniou, Andreas. Digital Filters. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1993.

See Also

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Introduced before R2006a

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