# chebyshevU

Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind

## Syntax

``chebyshevU(n,x)``

## Description

example

````chebyshevU(n,x)` represents the `n`th degree Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind at the point `x`.```

## Examples

### First Five Chebyshev Polynomials of the Second Kind

Find the first five Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind for the variable `x`.

```syms x chebyshevU([0, 1, 2, 3, 4], x)```
```ans = [ 1, 2*x, 4*x^2 - 1, 8*x^3 - 4*x, 16*x^4 - 12*x^2 + 1]```

### Chebyshev Polynomials for Numeric and Symbolic Arguments

Depending on its arguments, `chebyshevU` returns floating-point or exact symbolic results.

Find the value of the fifth-degree Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind at these points. Because these numbers are not symbolic objects, `chebyshevU` returns floating-point results.

`chebyshevU(5, [1/6, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5])`
```ans = 0.8560 0.9465 0.0000 -1.2675 -1.0982```

Find the value of the fifth-degree Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind for the same numbers converted to symbolic objects. For symbolic numbers, `chebyshevU` returns exact symbolic results.

`chebyshevU(5, sym([1/6, 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5]))`
```ans = [ 208/243, 33/32, 230/243, 0, -308/243, -3432/3125]```

### Evaluate Chebyshev Polynomials with Floating-Point Numbers

Floating-point evaluation of Chebyshev polynomials by direct calls of `chebyshevU` is numerically stable. However, first computing the polynomial using a symbolic variable, and then substituting variable-precision values into this expression can be numerically unstable.

Find the value of the 500th-degree Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind at `1/3` and `vpa(1/3)`. Floating-point evaluation is numerically stable.

```chebyshevU(500, 1/3) chebyshevU(500, vpa(1/3))```
```ans = 0.8680 ans = 0.86797529488884242798157148968078```

Now, find the symbolic polynomial `U500 = chebyshevU(500, x)`, and substitute `x = vpa(1/3)` into the result. This approach is numerically unstable.

```syms x U500 = chebyshevU(500, x); subs(U500, x, vpa(1/3))```
```ans = 63080680195950160912110845952.0```

Approximate the polynomial coefficients by using `vpa`, and then substitute `x = sym(1/3)` into the result. This approach is also numerically unstable.

`subs(vpa(U500), x, sym(1/3))`
```ans = -1878009301399851172833781612544.0```

### Plot Chebyshev Polynomials of the Second Kind

Plot the first five Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind.

```syms x y fplot(chebyshevU(0:4, x)) axis([-1.5 1.5 -2 2]) grid on ylabel('U_n(x)') legend('U_0(x)', 'U_1(x)', 'U_2(x)', 'U_3(x)', 'U_4(x)', 'Location', 'Best') title('Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind')```

## Input Arguments

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Degree of the polynomial, specified as a nonnegative integer, symbolic variable, expression, or function, or as a vector or matrix of numbers, symbolic numbers, variables, expressions, or functions.

Evaluation point, specified as a number, symbolic number, variable, expression, or function, or as a vector or matrix of numbers, symbolic numbers, variables, expressions, or functions.

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### Chebyshev Polynomials of the Second Kind

• Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind are defined as follows:

`$U\left(n,x\right)=\frac{\mathrm{sin}\left(\left(n+1\right)a\mathrm{cos}\left(x\right)\right)}{\mathrm{sin}\left(a\mathrm{cos}\left(x\right)\right)}$`

These polynomials satisfy the recursion formula

`$U\left(0,x\right)=1,\text{ }U\left(1,x\right)=2\text{ }x,\text{ }U\left(n,x\right)=2\text{ }x\text{ }U\left(n-1,x\right)-U\left(n-2,x\right)$`
• Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind are orthogonal on the interval -1 ≤ x ≤ 1 with respect to the weight function $w\left(x\right)=\sqrt{1-{x}^{2}}$.

• Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind are a special case of the Jacobi polynomials

`$U\left(n,x\right)=\frac{{2}^{2n}n!\left(n+1\right)!}{\left(2n+1\right)!}P\left(n,\frac{1}{2},\frac{1}{2},x\right)$`

and Gegenbauer polynomials

`$U\left(n,x\right)=G\left(n,1,x\right)$`

## Tips

• `chebyshevU` returns floating-point results for numeric arguments that are not symbolic objects.

• `chebyshevU` acts element-wise on nonscalar inputs.

• At least one input argument must be a scalar or both arguments must be vectors or matrices of the same size. If one input argument is a scalar and the other one is a vector or a matrix, then `chebyshevU` expands the scalar into a vector or matrix of the same size as the other argument with all elements equal to that scalar.

## References

[1] Hochstrasser, U. W. “Orthogonal Polynomials.” Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables. (M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, eds.). New York: Dover, 1972.

[2] Cohl, Howard S., and Connor MacKenzie. “Generalizations and Specializations of Generating Functions for Jacobi, Gegenbauer, Chebyshev and Legendre Polynomials with Definite Integrals.” Journal of Classical Analysis, no. 1 (2013): 17–33. https://doi.org/10.7153/jca-03-02.

Introduced in R2014b

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