Your MATLAB license is not operating system specific. It is, however, restricted in the number of different physical systems you can install it on and operate it on simultaneously. For the Student Version license and the Home license the restriction is to one physical system installed or operated on at a time. A "Standard" (Commercial / Professional) license allows more simultaneous systems.
For example if you were to switch to running Linux with a Virtual Machine running MS Windows on the same system, then that would be the same system and the license would permit you to to run on either or both as desired, even with a Student version or Home license. However, whether you are permitted to install on multiple physical systems depends upon your license type.