As of R2015a, MATLAB upgraded to HDF5 1.8.12 and thus now supports reading HDF5 datasets via the new dynamically loaded filter feature (which includes LZF compression).
To use a custom filter, you must have the third-party filter as a shared library or DLL on your system and then set the HDF5_PLUGIN_PATH environment variable to point to the shared libraries. Note that if you are using Windows, there may be additional steps required to ensure compatibility between the CRT (C Run-time Libraries) of the Visual Studio builds of HDF5 and the third-party filter.
For releases prior to R2015a, MATLAB does not support LZF compression filters.
The high-level functions can be used to read HDF5 files with compression filters. To return information about the compression filter used, and other metadata about the file, use ' h5info'. To read the file, assuming that the compression filter used is supported by MATLAB, call ' h5read', and the decompression will be done automatically.