Not in general.
If the images are TIFF images, then you could get more flexibility about how you read by using the Tiff() class. This will not necessarily reduce total time to read an image, but if it turned out that you only needed part of the image then it would permit you to read it in pieces if it was stored the right way.
If you are using blockproc() then there is an option to process a file instead of a matrix. blockproc() will take advantage of any facilities offered by the type of image to read only a section at a time. In practice this probably means special handling for TIFF but not for much else -- though in theory it might also be able to handle some JPEG images in sections.