HOW TO FIND THE DIAMETER FOR THE IRREGULAR SHAPE OF AN IMAGE
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David Legland on 8 Oct 2012
in the image processing toolbox there is a function "regionprops" that gives you the equivalent diameter of a particle. You can also access the major axis length of the inertia ellipse, that is a useful feature.
You can also consider Feret diameter, but you need to search on the FEx.
Image Analyst on 8 Oct 2012
Edited: Image Analyst on 8 Oct 2012
See my Image Segmentation Tutorial at http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/?term=authorid%3A31862. The function regionprops has a measurement "EquivDiameter" that you can ask for. It's basically sqrt(4*Area/pi) which is what you get for the diameter if you assume a circle of the same area as your blob.