This is machine translation

Translated by Microsoft
Mouseover text to see original. Click the button below to return to the English version of the page.

Note: This page has been translated by MathWorks. Click here to see
To view all translated materials including this page, select Country from the country navigator on the bottom of this page.

AnalysisPoint

Points of interest for linear analysis

Syntax

AP = AnalysisPoint(name)
AP = AnalysisPoint(name,N)

Description

AnalysisPoint is a Control Design Block for marking a location in a control system model as a point of interest for linear analysis and controller tuning. You can combine an AnalysisPoint block with numeric LTI models, tunable LTI models, and other Control Design Blocks to build tunable models of control systems. AnalysisPoint locations are available for analysis with commands such as getIOTransfer or getLoopTransfer. Such locations are also available for specifying design goals for control system tuning.

For example, consider the following control system.

Suppose that you are interested in the effects of disturbance injected at u in this control system. Inserting an AnalysisPoint block at the location u associates an implied input, implied output, and the option to open the loop at that location, as in the following diagram.

Suppose that T is a model of the control system including the AnalysisPoint block, AP_u. In this case, the command getIOTransfer(T,'AP_u','y') returns a model of the closed-loop transfer function from u to y. Likewise, the command getLoopTransfer(T,'AP_u',-1) returns a model of the negative-feedback open-loop response, CG, measured at the location u.

AnalysisPoint blocks are also useful when tuning a control system using tuning commands such as systune. You can use an AnalysisPoint block to mark a loop-opening location for open-loop tuning requirements such as TuningGoal.LoopShape or TuningGoal.Margins. You can also use an AnalysisPoint block to mark the specified input or output for tuning requirements such as TuningGoal.Gain. For example, Req = TuningGoal.Margins('AP_u',5,40) constrains the gain and phase margins at the location u.

You can create AnalysisPoint blocks explicitly using the AnalysisPoint command and connect them with other block diagram components using model interconnection commands. For example, the following code creates a model of the system illustrated above. (See Construction and Examples below for more information.)

G = tf(1,[1 2]);
C = tunablePID('C','pi');
AP_u = AnalysisPoint('u');
T = feedback(G*AP_u*C,1);      % closed loop r->y

You can also create analysis points implicitly, using the connect command. The following syntax creates a dynamic system model with analysis points, by interconnecting multiple models sys1,sys2,...,sysN:

sys = connect(sys1,sys2,...,sysN,inputs,outputs,APs);

APs lists the signal locations at which to insert analysis points. The software automatically creates and inserts an AnalysisPoint block with channels corresponding to these locations. See connect for more information.

Construction

AP = AnalysisPoint(name) creates a single-channel analysis point. Insert AP anywhere in the generalized model of your control system to mark a point of interest for linear analysis or controller tuning. name specifies the block name.

AP = AnalysisPoint(name,N) creates a multi-channel analysis point with N channels. Use this block to mark a vector-valued signal as a point of interest or to bundle together several points of interest.

Input Arguments

name

Analysis point name, specified as a character vector such as 'AP'. This input argument sets the value of the Name property of the AnalysisPoint block. (See Properties.) When you build a control system model using the block, the Name property is what appears in the Blocks list of the resulting genss model.

N

Number of channels for a multichannel analysis point, specified as a scalar integer.

Properties

Location

Names of channels in the AnalysisPoint blocks, specified as a character vector or a cell array of character vectors.

By default, the analysis-point channels are named after the name argument. For example, if you have a single-channel analysis point, AP, that has name 'AP', then AP.Location = 'AP' by default. If you have a multi-channel analysis point, then AP.Location = {'AP(1)','AP(2)',...} by default. Set AP.Location to a different value if you want to customize the channel names.

Open

Loop-opening state, specified as a logical value or vector of logical values. This property tracks whether the loop is open or closed at the analysis point.

For example, consider the feedback loop of the following illustration.

You can model this feedback loop as follows.

G = tf(1,[1 2]);
C = tunablePID('C','pi');
X = AnalysisPoint('X');
T = feedback(G*C,X);

You can get the transfer function from r to y with the feedback loop open at X as follows.

 Try = getIOTransfer(T,'r','y','X');

In the resulting generalized state-space (genss) model, the AnalysisPoint block 'X' is marked open. In other words, Try.Blocks.X.Open = 1.

For a multi-channel analysis point, then Open is a logical vector with as many entries as the analysis point has channels.

Default: 0 for all channels

Ts

Sample time. For AnalysisPoint blocks, the value of this property is automatically set to the sample time of other blocks and models you connect it with.

Default: 0 (continuous time)

TimeUnit

Units for the time variable, the sample time Ts, and any time delays in the model, specified as one of the following values:

  • 'nanoseconds'

  • 'microseconds'

  • 'milliseconds'

  • 'seconds'

  • 'minutes'

  • 'hours'

  • 'days'

  • 'weeks'

  • 'months'

  • 'years'

Changing this property has no effect on other properties, and therefore changes the overall system behavior. Use chgTimeUnit to convert between time units without modifying system behavior.

Default: 'seconds'

InputName

Input channel names, specified as one of the following:

  • Character vector — For single-input models, for example, 'controls'.

  • Cell array of character vectors — For multi-input models.

Alternatively, use automatic vector expansion to assign input names for multi-input models. For example, if sys is a two-input model, enter:

sys.InputName = 'controls';

The input names automatically expand to {'controls(1)';'controls(2)'}.

You can use the shorthand notation u to refer to the InputName property. For example, sys.u is equivalent to sys.InputName.

Input channel names have several uses, including:

  • Identifying channels on model display and plots

  • Extracting subsystems of MIMO systems

  • Specifying connection points when interconnecting models

Default: '' for all input channels

InputUnit

Input channel units, specified as one of the following:

  • Character vector — For single-input models, for example, 'seconds'.

  • Cell array of character vectors — For multi-input models.

Use InputUnit to keep track of input signal units. InputUnit has no effect on system behavior.

Default: '' for all input channels

InputGroup

Input channel groups. The InputGroup property lets you assign the input channels of MIMO systems into groups and refer to each group by name. Specify input groups as a structure. In this structure, field names are the group names, and field values are the input channels belonging to each group. For example:

sys.InputGroup.controls = [1 2];
sys.InputGroup.noise = [3 5];

creates input groups named controls and noise that include input channels 1, 2 and 3, 5, respectively. You can then extract the subsystem from the controls inputs to all outputs using:

sys(:,'controls')

Default: Struct with no fields

OutputName

Output channel names, specified as one of the following:

  • Character vector — For single-output models. For example, 'measurements'.

  • Cell array of character vectors — For multi-output models.

Alternatively, use automatic vector expansion to assign output names for multi-output models. For example, if sys is a two-output model, enter:

sys.OutputName = 'measurements';

The output names automatically expand to {'measurements(1)';'measurements(2)'}.

You can use the shorthand notation y to refer to the OutputName property. For example, sys.y is equivalent to sys.OutputName.

Output channel names have several uses, including:

  • Identifying channels on model display and plots

  • Extracting subsystems of MIMO systems

  • Specifying connection points when interconnecting models

Default: '' for all output channels

OutputUnit

Output channel units, specified as one of the following:

  • Character vector — For single-output models. For example, 'seconds'.

  • Cell array of character vectors — For multi-output models.

Use OutputUnit to keep track of output signal units. OutputUnit has no effect on system behavior.

Default: '' for all output channels

OutputGroup

Output channel groups. The OutputGroup property lets you assign the output channels of MIMO systems into groups and refer to each group by name. Specify output groups as a structure. In this structure, field names are the group names, and field values are the output channels belonging to each group. For example:

sys.OutputGroup.temperature = [1];
sys.InputGroup.measurement = [3 5];

creates output groups named temperature and measurement that include output channels 1, and 3, 5, respectively. You can then extract the subsystem from all inputs to the measurement outputs using:

sys('measurement',:)

Default: Struct with no fields

Name

System name, specified as a character vector. For example, 'system_1'.

Default: ''

Notes

Any text that you want to associate with the system, stored as a string or a cell array of character vectors. The property stores whichever data type you provide. For instance, if sys1 and sys2 are dynamic system models, you can set their Notes properties as follows:

sys1.Notes = "sys1 has a string.";
sys2.Notes = 'sys2 has a character vector.';
sys1.Notes
sys2.Notes
ans = 

    "sys1 has a string."


ans =

    'sys2 has a character vector.'

Default: [0×1 string]

UserData

Any type of data you want to associate with system, specified as any MATLAB® data type.

Default: []

Examples

collapse all

Create a model of the following feedback loop with an analysis point in the feedback path.

For this example, the plant model is G=1/(s+2). C is a tunable PI controller, and X is the analysis point.

G = tf(1,[1 2]);
C = tunablePID('C','pi');
X = AnalysisPoint('X');
T = feedback(G*C,X); 
T.InputName = 'r';
T.OutputName = 'y';

T is a tunable genss model. T.Blocks contains the Control Design Blocks of the model, which are the controller, C, and the analysis point, X.

T.Blocks
ans = struct with fields:
    C: [1x1 tunablePID]
    X: [1x1 AnalysisPoint]

Examine the step response of T.

stepplot(T)

The presence of the AnalysisPoint block does not change the dynamics of the model.

You can use the analysis point for linear analysis of the system. For instance, extract the system response at 'y' to a disturbance injected at the analysis point.

Txy = getIOTransfer(T,'X','y');

The AnalysisPoint block also allows you to temporarily open the feedback loop at that point. For example, compute the open-loop response from 'r' to 'y'.

Try_open = getIOTransfer(T,'r','y','X');

Specifying the analysis point name as the last argument to getIOTransfer extracts the response with the loop open at that point. Examine the step response of Try_open to verify that it is the open-loop response.

stepplot(Try_open);

Create a model of the following block diagram from r to y. Insert an analysis point at an internal location, u.

Create C and G, and name the inputs and outputs.

C = pid(2,1); 
C.InputName = 'e';  
C.OutputName = 'u';
G = zpk([],[-1,-1],1);
G.InputName = 'u';  
G.OutputName = 'y';

Create the summing junction.

Sum = sumblk('e = r - y');

Combine C, G, and the summing junction to create the aggregate model, with an analysis point at u.

T = connect(G,C,Sum,'r','y','u')
T =

  Generalized continuous-time state-space model with 1 outputs, 1 inputs, 3 states, and the following blocks:
    AnalysisPoints_: Analysis point, 1 channels, 1 occurrences.

Type "ss(T)" to see the current value, "get(T)" to see all properties, and "T.Blocks" to interact with the blocks.

The resulting T is a genss model. The connect command creates the AnalysisPoint block, AnalysisPoints_, and inserts it into T. To see the name of the analysis point channel in AnalysisPoints_, use getPoints.

getPoints(T)
ans = 1x1 cell array
    {'u'}

The analysis point channel is named 'u'. You can use this analysis point to extract system responses. For example, the following commands extract the open-loop transfer at u and the closed-loop response at y to a disturbance injected at u.

L = getLoopTransfer(T,'u',-1);
Tuy = getIOTransfer(T,'u','y');

T is equivalent to the following block diagram, where AP_u designates the AnalysisPoint block AnalysisPoints_ with channel name u.

Create a block for marking two analysis points in a MIMO model.

In the control system of the following illustration, consider each signal a vector-valued signal of size 2. In other words, the signal r represents {r(1),r(2)}, y represents {y(1),y(2)}, and so on.

The feedback signal is therefore also a vector-valued signal of size 2. Create a block for marking the two analysis points in the feedback path.

AP = AnalysisPoint('X',2)
AP =

Multi-channel analysis point at locations:
   X(1)
   X(2)

Type "ss(AP)" to see the current value and "get(AP)" to see all properties.

The AnalysisPoint block is stored as a variable in the MATLAB® workspace called AP. In addition, the Name property of the block is set to X. When you interconnect the block with numeric LTI models or other Control Design Blocks, this analysis-point block is identified in the Blocks property of the resulting genss model as X. The block name X is automatically expanded to generate the channel names X(1) and X(2).

It is sometimes convenient to change the channel names to match the names of the signals they correspond to in a block diagram of your model. For example, suppose the points of interest you want to mark in your model are signals named L and V. Change the Location property of AP to make the names match those signals.

AP.Location = {'L';'V'}
AP =

Multi-channel analysis point at locations:
   L
   V

Type "ss(AP)" to see the current value and "get(AP)" to see all properties.

Although the channel names have changed, the block name remains X.

AP.Name
ans = 
'X'

Therefore, the Blocks property of a genss model you build with this block still identifies the block as X. Use getPoints to find the channel names of available analysis points in a genss model.

Introduced in R2014b