The FEATool Multiphysics and the CFDToolMatlab CFD Toolbox (available via the FileExchange and Matlab Add-Ons) allows you to perform fluid flow and other physics simulations directly in a GUI environment. In addition to using the built-in GUI you can also use all toolbox functions directly on the command line, so in your case you could use featool m-functions for justgeometry and grid generation, or 3D visualization and postprocessing as in the linked post.
The linked video tutorial show how to set up and solve aflow around a cylinder directly in Matlab and optionally solve it with the external OpenFOAM CFD solver.
Yes, MATLAB can be used to visualize data for turbulent flows. One of the examples would be the MATLAB code available on the Johns Hopkins Turbulence database website:Using the JHU Turbulence Database Matlab Analysis Tools. This GUI based implementation "provides functionality for plotting/animating velocity and vorticity fields, computing and plotting longitudinal energy spectra, and computing PDF's of velocity, pressure, and velocity increments". Here is one of the snapshots I could produce at my end.
Here, the data is fetched from the JHU Turbulence Database Cluster. You can write a similar code to visualize your own data.