Because access permission is such a complex beast on Windows, the best way to check if the user can do something is simply to attempt to do the something and check that it succeeded:
error('You do not have sufficient permissions to perform the operation. Log in as admin and try again.');
Note that being administrator may or may not be sufficient to do whatever you want to do and note that even non-administrators may be able to do it. If you really wanted to check before hand if the user can do your operation you would check for the exact permission required among the many possible permissions.
In any case, there is no tool in matlab to manage / check user permissions. If you really want to check permissions, on Windows, you would have to defer to .Net, for example the <https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.principal.windowsprincipal(v=vs.110).aspx WindowsPrincipal class. I've not been able to work out how to use it reliably, unfortunately.
As said, try... catch is the best way to deal with this.