This book describes circuit strategies resulting in efficient and functional adaptive resonance theory (ART) hardware systems. All systems described in the book have been designed and fabricated as VLSI microchips in anticipation of the impending proliferation of ART applications to autonomous intelligent systems. The book provides circuit design techniques, and also validates them through experimental measurements. Also included is a chapter that tutorially describes four ART architectures while providing MATLAB code examples to implement these four algorithms. In addition, an entire chapter is devoted to other potential applications for real-time data clustering and category learning.