Code covered by the BSD License

# Variable Precision Integer Arithmetic

### John D'Errico (view profile)

19 Jan 2009 (Updated )

Arithmetic with integers of fully arbitrary size. Arrays and vectors of vpi numbers are supported.

### Editor's Notes:

This file was selected as MATLAB Central Pick of the Week

lineardiophantine(A,B,C)
```function [x0,y0,xt,yt] = lineardiophantine(A,B,C)
% lineardiophantine: solve the linear Diophantine equation, A*x + B*y = C
% usage: [x0,x0,yt,yt] = lineardiophantine(A,B,C)
%
% http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diophantine_equation
%
% The solution will be written parametrically as
%   x = x0 + xt*t
%   y = y0 + yt*t
% where t is any integer value
%
% Arguments: (input)
%  A,B,C - scalar, integer coefficients of the
%       linear Diophantine equation, A*x + B*y = C

if nargin~=3
error('Must supply all three of A, B, C as arguments')
end

% special cases?
if C == 0
% the solution is simple.
% x = B*t, y = A*t
x0 = 0;
xt = B;
y0 = 0;
yt = -A;
return
elseif (A == 0) && (B == 0)
% No solution exists when both A and B
% are zero, but C is non-zero
x0 = [];
xt = [];
y0 = [];
yt = [];

warning('LINEARDIOPHANTINE:nosolution', ...
'No solution exists, A==B==0, but C~=0')

return
elseif A == 0
% this reduces to the solutions of
% B*y = C. B is not zero here.
if gcd(B,C) == B
y0 = C/B;
yt = 0;
x0 = 0;
xt = 0;
return
else
% no solution can exist otherwise
x0 = [];
xt = [];
y0 = [];
yt = [];

warning('LINEARDIOPHANTINE:nosolution',...
'No solutions exist, A == 0, but C is not divisible by B')

return
end
elseif B == 0
% this reduces to the solutions of
% A*x = C. A is not zero here.
if gcd(A,C) == A
y0 = 0;
yt = 0;
x0 = C/A;
xt = 0;
return
else
% no solution can exist otherwise
x0 = [];
xt = [];
y0 = [];
yt = [];

warning('LINEARDIOPHANTINE:nosolution', ...
'No solutions exist, B == 0, but C is not divisible by A')

return
end
end

% The final test is against the gcd(A,B).
% gcd(A,B) must also divide C.
G = gcd(A,B);
R = mod(C,G);
if R ~= 0
x0 = [];
xt = [];
y0 = [];
yt = [];

warning('LINEARDIOPHANTINE:nosolution', ...
'No solution can exist. C must be divisible by gcd(A,B).')

return
end

% reduce the problem by dividing out any
% common factors of all three numbers.
A = A/G;
B = B/G;
C = C/G;

% negative C
if C < 0
C = abs(C);
A = -A;
B = -B;
end
% or negative A or B
Asign = sign(A);
Bsign = sign(B);
A = abs(A);
B = abs(B);

% If we make it to here, then the solution
% is given by the extended Euclidean algorithm,
% which solves the problem for C == 1.
xt = B;
yt = -A;

% all we need now is one particular solution.
R1 = vpi(A); % make sure that quotient will run
R2 = B; % we already know that B ~= 0
[x1,x2] = deal(1,0);
[y1,y2] = deal(0,1);

% get the particular solution by iteratively calling quotient.
R = 1;
while (R~=0)
[Q,R] = quotient(R1,R2);
if R == 0
% we are done
x0 = x2;
y0 = y2;
else
% more to do
[R1,R2] = deal(R2,R);
[x1,x2] = deal(x2,x1 - x2*Q);
[y1,y2] = deal(y2,y1 - y2*Q);
end
end

% now correct for C~=1
if C ~= 1
x0 = x0*C;
y0 = y0*C;
end

if Asign < 0
x0 = -x0;
xt = -xt;
end
if Bsign < 0
y0 = -y0;
yt = -yt;
end

```