ioDelay properties, you can model simple processes
with transport delays. However, these properties cannot model more
complex situations, such as feedback loops with delays. In addition
ss) models have an
This property lets you model the interconnection of systems with input,
output, or transport delays, including feedback loops with delays.
You can use
InternalDelay property to accurately
model and analyze arbitrary linear systems with delays. Internal delays
can arise from the following:
Concatenating state-space models with input and output delays.
Feeding back a delayed signal.
with transport delays to state-space form.
Using internal time delays, you can do the following:
In continuous time, generate approximate-free time and frequency simulations, because delays do not have to be replaced by a Padé approximation. In continuous time, this allows for more accurate analysis of systems with long delays.
In discrete time, keep delays separate from other system dynamics, because delays are not replaced with poles at z = 0, which boosts efficiency of time and frequency simulations for discrete-time systems with long delays.
Use most Control System Toolbox™ functions.
Test advanced control strategies for delayed systems. For example, you can implement and test an accurate model of a Smith predictor. See the example Control of Processes with Long Dead Time: The Smith Predictor.
This example illustrates why input, output, and transport delays not enough to model all types of delays that can arise in dynamic systems. Consider the simple feedback loop with a 2 s. delay:
The closed-loop transfer function is
The delay term in the numerator can be represented as an output
delay. However, the delay term in the denominator cannot. In order
to model the effect of the delay on the feedback loop, the
is needed to keep track of internal coupling between delays and ordinary
Typically, you do not create state-space models with internal delays directly, by specifying the A, B, C, and D matrices together with a set of internal delays. Rather, such models arise when you interconnect models having delays. There is no limitation on how many delays are involved and how the models are connected. For an example of creating an internal delay by closing a feedback loop, see Closing Feedback Loops with Time Delays.
When you work with models having internal delays, be aware of the following behavior:
When a model interconnection gives rise to internal
delays, the software returns an
ss model regardless
of the interconnected model types. This occurs because only
The software fully supports feedback loops. You can wrap a feedback loop around any system with delays.
When displaying the
D matrices, the software sets all delays to
zero (creating a zero-order Padé approximation). This approximation
occurs for the display only, and not for calculations using the model.
For some systems, setting delays to zero creates singular algebraic loops, which result in either improper or ill-defined, zero-delay approximations. For these systems:
sys returns only sizes
for the matrices of a system named
sys.A produces an error.
The limited display and the error do not imply a problem with
State-space objects use generalized state-space equations to keep track of internal delays. Conceptually, such models consist of two interconnected parts:
An ordinary state-space model H(s) with an augmented I/O set
A bank of internal delays.
The corresponding state-space equations are:
You need not bother with this internal representation to use
the tools. If, however, you want to extract
you can use
For the example:
P = 5*exp(-3.4*s)/(s+1); C = 0.1 * (1 + 1/(5*s)); T = feedback(ss(P*C),1); [H,tau] = getDelayModel(T,'lft'); size(H)
H is a two-input, two-output model
T is SISO. The inverse operation (combining
T) is performed by
The following commands support internal delays for both continuous- and discrete-time systems:
The following commands support internal delays for both continuous- and discrete-time systems and have certain limitations:
get—If an SS model has internal
delays, these commands return the
D matrices of the system with all internal
delays set to zero. Use
access the internal state-space representation of models with internal
The following commands do not support internal time delays:
 P. Gahinet and L.F. Shampine, "Software for Modeling and Analysis of Linear Systems with Delays," Proc. American Control Conf., Boston, 2004, pp. 5600-5605
 L.F. Shampine and P. Gahinet, Delay-differential-algebraic Equations in Control Theory, Applied Numerical Mathematics, 56 (2006), pp. 574-588