Form initial guess for boundary value problem solver

forms an initial guess for the solution on the interval `solinit`

= bvpinit(`sol`

,[anew bnew])`[anew bnew]`

,
where `sol`

is a solution structure obtained from
`bvp4c`

or `bvp5c`

. The new interval ```
[anew
bnew]
```

must be larger than the previous interval on which `sol`

is defined. The previous solution `sol`

is extrapolated to the new
interval.

specifies a vector of initial guesses for parameters with unknown values in the boundary
value problem. You can use this syntax with either of the previous input argument
combinations.`solinit`

= bvpinit(___,`parameters`

)

Create an initial guess of the solution to a BVP, solve the BVP with `bvp4c`

, and then extend the solution to a new domain.

Forming a good initial guess of the solution to a BVP problem is perhaps the most difficult part of solving the problem. BVP solutions are not necessarily unique, so the initial guess can be the deciding factor in which of many solutions the solver returns. The initial guess should satisfy the boundary conditions, and the behavior inbetween should reflect your general expectations about the problem (whether the solution oscillates, is a simple linear function, and so on...).

Consider the differential equation

$${{\mathit{y}}^{\prime}}^{\prime}=-\mathit{y}$$.

The equation is subject to the boundary conditions

$\mathit{y}\left(0\right)=\mathit{y}\left(\pi \right)=0$.

The function that encodes the equation as a first-order system is

function dydx = bvpfun(x,y) dydx = [y(2) -y(1)]; end

Similarly, the function that encodes the boundary conditions is

function res = bcfun(ya,yb) res = [ya(1) yb(1)]; end

You either can include the required functions as local functions at the end of a file (as done here), or you can save them as separate, named files in a directory on the MATLAB path.

**Initial Guess with Function Handle**

You reasonably can expect the solution to the equation to be oscillatory, so sine and cosine functions are a good initial guess of the behavior of the solution and its derivative between the fixed boundary points.

function y = guess(x) y = [sin(x) cos(x)]; end

Create a solution structure using 10 equally spaced mesh points in the domain $\left[0,\pi \right]$ and the initial guess function.

xmesh = linspace(0,pi,10); solinit = bvpinit(xmesh,@guess);

**Solve BVP**

Call `bvp4c`

with the ode function, boundary conditions, and solution guess. Plot the result.

```
sol = bvp4c(@bvpfun, @bcfun, solinit);
plot(sol.x,sol.y,'-o')
```

**Local Functions**

Listed here are the local helper functions that the BVP solver `bvp4c`

calls to calculate the solution. Alternatively, you can save these functions as their own files in a directory on the MATLAB path.

function dydx = bvpfun(x,y) % equation being solved dydx = [y(2) -y(1)]; end %------------------------------------------- function res = bcfun(ya,yb) % boundary conditions res = [ya(1) yb(1)]; end %------------------------------------------- function y = guess(x) % guess at solution behavior y = [sin(x) cos(x)]; end %-------------------------------------------

Solve a BVP over an initial interval, and then iteratively extend the interval using each solution as the initial guess for the next interval.

Consider the equation

${{\mathit{y}}^{\prime}}^{\prime}=\mathit{y}$.

As a first-order system, the equation becomes a system of two equations

${{\mathit{y}}_{1}}^{\prime}={\mathit{y}}_{2}$,

${{\mathit{y}}_{2}}^{\prime}={\mathit{y}}_{1}$.

The equation is initially defined on the interval $\left[0,3\right]$ and is subject to the boundary conditions

$\mathit{y}\left(0\right)=0$,

$\mathit{y}\left(3\right)=1$.

The function that encodes the equation as a first-order system is

function dydx = bvpfun(x,y) dydx = [y(2) y(1)]; end

Similarly, the function that encodes the boundary conditions is

function res = bcfun(ya,yb) res = [ya(1) yb(1)-1]; end

You either can include the required functions as local functions at the end of a file (as done here), or you can save them as separate, named files in a directory on the MATLAB path.

**Initial Guess**

Use an exponential function as the initial guess for the solution. Since the equation has two solution components, write an initial guess function of the form `y = guess(x)`

that returns a vector.

function y = guess(x) y = [exp(x) exp(x)]; end

A mesh of five points is sufficient to capture the behavior of the guess function.

xmesh = linspace(0,3,5); solinit = bvpinit(xmesh,@guess);

**Solve Equation**

Solve the equation in the initial interval $\left[0,3\right]$ and plot the results for ${\mathit{y}}_{1}$.

```
sol = bvp4c(@bvpfun, @bcfun, solinit);
plot(sol.x(1,:),sol.y(1,:),'-o')
```

**Extend Interval**

Now, use `bvpinit`

to extend the interval of integration in a loop, solving and plotting each new problem. In each iteration, form the initial guess using the previous solution `sol`

extrapolated to the new interval `[0 k]`

. In each new problem, `bvp4c`

enforces the boundary conditions at the new boundaries `[0 k]`

.

hold on for k = 4:8 solinit = bvpinit(sol,[0 k]); sol = bvp4c(@bvpfun, @bcfun, solinit); plot(sol.x(1,:),sol.y(1,:),'-o') end

This example shows a simplified version of *continuation*, a useful technique to solve BVPs by breaking the problem down into smaller intervals or simpler problems. For more examples of this technique, see:

**Local Functions**

Listed here are the local helper functions that the BVP solver `bvp4c`

calls to calculate the solution. Alternatively, you can save these functions as their own files in a directory on the MATLAB path.

function dydx = bvpfun(x,y) % equation being solved dydx = [y(2) y(1)]; end %------------------------------------------- function res = bcfun(ya,yb) % boundary conditions res = [ya(1) yb(1)-1]; end %------------------------------------------- function y = guess(x) % guess at solution behavior y = [exp(x) exp(x)]; end %-------------------------------------------

`x`

— Initial meshvector

Initial mesh, specified as a vector. To solve the problem on the interval
[*a*,*b*], specify `x(1)`

as
*a* and `x(end)`

as *b*. The
entries of `x`

must be in increasing order (if *a* < *b*) or decreasing order (if *a* > *b*). The solver adapts this mesh to the solution (by adding, removing,
and moving the mesh points), so a guess like `x = linspace(a,b,10)`

often suffices. To handle difficult problems, place some mesh points where the solution
changes rapidly.

For

*two-point*boundary value problems, the entries of`x`

must be unique. That is, if*a*<*b*, the entries must satisfy`x(1)`

<`x(2)`

< ... <`x(end)`

. If*a*>*b*, the entries must satisfy`x(1)`

>`x(2)`

> ... >`x(end)`

.For

*multipoint*boundary value problems, you can specify the points in [*a*,*b*] at which the boundary conditions apply, other than the endpoints*a*and*b*, by repeating their entries in`x`

. For example, consider the vectorFor this mesh, the boundary conditions apply at three points: the endpointsx = [0 0.5 1 1 1.5 2];

`0`

and`2`

, and the repeated entry`1`

. In general, repeated entries represent boundary points between regions in [*a*,*b*]. The repeated entry`1`

divides the interval`[0 2]`

into two regions:`[0 1]`

and`[1 2]`

.

**Example: **`solinit = bvpinit(linspace(a,b,10),yinit)`

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

| `int8`

| `int16`

| `int32`

| `int64`

| `uint8`

| `uint16`

| `uint32`

| `uint64`

| `logical`

**Complex Number Support: **Yes

`yinit`

— Initial guess of solutionvector | function

Initial guess of solution, specified as a vector or a function.

**Vector**– For each component of the solution,`bvpinit`

replicates the corresponding element of the vector as a constant guess across all mesh points. That is,`yinit(i)`

is a constant guess for the`i`

th component`yinit(i,:)`

of the solution at all the mesh points in`x`

.**Function**– For a given mesh point, the guess function must return a vector whose elements are guesses for the corresponding components of the solution. The function must be of the formy = guess(x)

`x`

is a mesh point and`y`

is a vector whose length is the same as the number of components in the solution. For example, if`yinit`

is a function, then at each mesh point`bvpinit`

callsy(:,j) = guess(x(j))

For multipoint boundary value problems, the guess function must be of the form

y = guess(x, k)

`y`

is an initial guess for the solution at`x`

in region`k`

. The function must accept the input argument`k`

, which is provided for flexibility in writing the guess function. However, the function is not required to use`k`

.

**Example: **`solinit = bvpinit(x,)`

**Example: **`solinit = bvpinit(x,@guess)`

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

| `int8`

| `int16`

| `int32`

| `int64`

| `uint8`

| `uint16`

| `uint32`

| `uint64`

| `logical`

| `char`

| `function_handle`

**Complex Number Support: **Yes

`parameters`

— Initial guess for unknown parameter valuesscalar | vector

Initial guess for unknown parameter values, specified as a scalar or vector.

**Example: **`solinit = bvpinit(x, yinit, [0 1 sqrt(2)])`

specifies a
vector of guesses for three unknown parameters.

**Example: **Type `edit mat4bvp`

to see an example of a BVP with an
unknown parameter.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

| `int8`

| `int16`

| `int32`

| `int64`

| `uint8`

| `uint16`

| `uint32`

| `uint64`

| `logical`

**Complex Number Support: **Yes

`sol`

— Prior solutionstructure

Prior solution, specified as a solution structure returned by
`bvp4c`

or `bvp5c`

. If `sol`

contains parameters, they are copied to `solinit`

.

**Data Types: **`struct`

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