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## Thermal Deflection of Bimetallic Beam

This example shows how to solve a coupled thermo-elasticity problem. Thermal expansion or contraction in mechanical components and structures occurs due to temperature changes in the operating environment. Thermal stress is a secondary manifestation: the structure experiences stresses when structural constraints prevent free thermal expansion or contraction of the component. Deflection of a bimetallic beam is a common physics experiment. A typical bimetallic beam consists of two materials bonded together. The coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of these materials are significantly different. This example finds the deflection of a bimetallic beam using a structural finite-element model. The example compares this deflection to the analytic solution based on beam theory approximation.

Create a static structural model.

`structuralmodel = createpde('structural','static-solid');`

Create a beam geometry with the following dimensions.

```L = 0.1; % m W = 5E-3; % m H = 1E-3; % m gm = multicuboid(L,W,[H,H],'Zoffset',[0,H]);```

Include the geometry in the structural model.

`structuralmodel.Geometry = gm;`

Plot the geometry.

```figure pdegplot(structuralmodel)``` Identify the cell labels of the cells for which you want to specify material properties.

First, display the cell label for the bottom cell. To see the cell label clearly, zoom onto the left end of the beam and rotate the geometry as follows.

```figure pdegplot(structuralmodel,'CellLabels','on') axis([-L/2 -L/3 -W/2 W/2 0 2*H]) view([0 0]) zticks([])``` Now, display the cell label for the top cell. To see the cell label clearly, zoom onto the right end of the beam and rotate the geometry as follows.

```figure pdegplot(structuralmodel,'CellLabels','on') axis([L/3 L/2 -W/2 W/2 0 2*H]) view([0 0]) zticks([])``` Specify the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and linear coefficient of thermal expansion to model linear elastic material behavior. To maintain unit consistency, specify all physical properties in SI units.

Assign the material properties of copper to the bottom cell.

```Ec = 137E9; % N/m^2 nuc = 0.28; CTEc = 20.00E-6; % m/m-C structuralProperties(structuralmodel,'Cell',1, ... 'YoungsModulus',Ec, ... 'PoissonsRatio',nuc, ... 'CTE',CTEc);```

Assign the material properties of invar to the top cell.

```Ei = 130E9; % N/m^2 nui = 0.354; CTEi = 1.2E-6; % m/m-C structuralProperties(structuralmodel,'Cell',2, ... 'YoungsModulus',Ei, ... 'PoissonsRatio',nui, ... 'CTE',CTEi);```

For this example, assume that the left end of the beam is fixed. To impose this boundary condition, display the face labels on the left end of the beam.

```figure pdegplot(structuralmodel,'faceLabels','on','FaceAlpha',0.25) axis([-L/2 -L/3 -W/2 W/2 0 2*H]) view([60 10]) xticks([]) yticks([]) zticks([])``` Apply a fixed boundary condition on faces 5 and 10.

`structuralBC(structuralmodel,'Face',[5,10],'Constraint','fixed');`

Apply the temperature change as a thermal load. Use a reference temperature of 25 degrees Celsius and an operating temperature of 125 degrees Celsius. Thus, the temperature change for this model is 100 degrees Celsius.

```structuralBodyLoad(structuralmodel,'Temperature',125); structuralmodel.ReferenceTemperature = 25;```

Generate a mesh and solve the model.

```generateMesh(structuralmodel,'Hmax',H/2); R = solve(structuralmodel);```

Plot the deflected shape of the bimetallic beam with the magnitude of displacement as the color map data.

```figure pdeplot3D(structuralmodel,'ColorMapData',R.Displacement.Magnitude, ... 'Deformation',R.Displacement, ... 'DeformationScaleFactor',2) title('Deflection of Invar-Copper Beam')``` Compute the deflection analytically, based on beam theory. The deflection of the strip is $\delta =\frac{6\Delta \text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathit{T}\left({\alpha }_{\mathit{c}}-{\alpha }_{\mathit{i}}\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathit{L}}^{2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}}}{{\mathit{K}}_{1}}$, where ${\mathit{K}}_{1}=14+\frac{{\mathit{E}}_{\mathit{c}}}{{\mathit{E}}_{\mathit{i}}}+\frac{{\mathit{E}}_{\mathit{i}}}{{\mathit{E}}_{\mathit{c}}}$, $\Delta \text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathit{T}$ is the temperature difference, ${\alpha }_{\mathit{c}}$ and ${\alpha }_{\mathit{i}}$ are the coefficients of thermal expansion of copper and invar, ${\mathit{E}}_{\mathit{c}}$ and ${\mathit{E}}_{\mathit{i}}$ are the Young's modulus of copper and invar, and $\mathit{L}$ is the length of the strip.

```K1 = 14 + (Ec/Ei)+ (Ei/Ec); deflectionAnalytical = 3*(CTEc - CTEi)*100*2*H*L^2/(H^2*K1);```

Compare the analytical results and the results obtained in this example. The results are comparable because of the large aspect ratio.

```PDEToobox_Deflection = max(R.Displacement.uz); percentError = 100*(PDEToobox_Deflection - ... deflectionAnalytical)/PDEToobox_Deflection; bimetallicResults = table(PDEToobox_Deflection, ... deflectionAnalytical,percentError); bimetallicResults.Properties.VariableNames = {'PDEToolbox', ... 'Analytical', ... 'PercentageError'}; disp(bimetallicResults)```
``` PDEToolbox Analytical PercentageError __________ __________ _______________ 0.0071061 0.0070488 0.8063 ```
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