directivity

System object: phased.HeterogeneousULA
Package: phased

Directivity of heterogeneous uniform linear array

Syntax

D = directivity(H,FREQ,ANGLE)
D = directivity(H,FREQ,ANGLE,Name,Value)

Description

D = directivity(H,FREQ,ANGLE) computes the Directivity (dBi) of a heterogeneous uniform linear array of antenna or microphone elements, H, at frequencies specified by the FREQ and in angles of direction specified by the ANGLE.

D = directivity(H,FREQ,ANGLE,Name,Value) computes the directivity with additional options specified by one or more Name,Value pair arguments.

Input Arguments

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Heterogeneous uniform linear array, specified as a phased.HeterogeneousULA System object.

Example: H = phased.HeterogeneousULA;

Frequencies for computing directivity and patterns, specified as a positive scalar or 1-by-L real-valued row vector. Frequency units are in hertz.

  • For an antenna, microphone, or sonar hydrophone or projector element, FREQ must lie within the range of values specified by the FrequencyRange or FrequencyVector property of the element. Otherwise, the element produces no response and the directivity is returned as –Inf. Most elements use the FrequencyRange property except for phased.CustomAntennaElement and phased.CustomMicrophoneElement, which use the FrequencyVector property.

  • For an array of elements, FREQ must lie within the frequency range of the elements that make up the array. Otherwise, the array produces no response and the directivity is returned as –Inf.

Example: [1e8 2e6]

Data Types: double

Angles for computing directivity, specified as a 1-by-M real-valued row vector or a 2-by-M real-valued matrix, where M is the number of angular directions. Angle units are in degrees. If ANGLE is a 2-by-M matrix, then each column specifies a direction in azimuth and elevation, [az;el]. The azimuth angle must lie between –180° and 180°. The elevation angle must lie between –90° and 90°.

If ANGLE is a 1-by-M vector, then each entry represents an azimuth angle, with the elevation angle assumed to be zero.

The azimuth angle is the angle between the x-axis and the projection of the direction vector onto the xy plane. This angle is positive when measured from the x-axis toward the y-axis. The elevation angle is the angle between the direction vector and xy plane. This angle is positive when measured towards the z-axis. See Azimuth and Elevation Angles.

Example: [45 60; 0 10]

Data Types: double

Name-Value Pair Arguments

Specify optional comma-separated pairs of Name,Value arguments. Name is the argument name and Value is the corresponding value. Name must appear inside quotes. You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN.

Signal propagation speed, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'PropagationSpeed' and a positive scalar in meters per second.

Example: 'PropagationSpeed',physconst('LightSpeed')

Data Types: double

Array weights, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Weights' and an N-by-1 complex-valued column vector or N-by-L complex-valued matrix. Array weights are applied to the elements of the array to produce array steering, tapering, or both. The dimension N is the number of elements in the array. The dimension L is the number of frequencies specified by FREQ.

Weights DimensionFREQ DimensionPurpose
N-by-1 complex-valued column vectorScalar or 1-by-L row vectorApplies a set of weights for the single frequency or for all L frequencies.
N-by-L complex-valued matrix1-by-L row vectorApplies each of the L columns of 'Weights' for the corresponding frequency in FREQ.

Note

Use complex weights to steer the array response toward different directions. You can create weights using the phased.SteeringVector System object or you can compute your own weights. In general, you apply Hermitian conjugation before using weights in any Phased Array System Toolbox™ function or System object such as phased.Radiator or phased.Collector. However, for the directivity, pattern, patternAzimuth, and patternElevation methods of any array System object use the steering vector without conjugation.

Example: 'Weights',ones(N,M)

Data Types: double
Complex Number Support: Yes

Output Arguments

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Directivity, returned as an M-by-L matrix. Each row corresponds to one of the M angles specified by ANGLE. Each column corresponds to one of the L frequency values specified in FREQ. Directivity units are in dBi where dBi is defined as the gain of an element relative to an isotropic radiator.

Examples

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Compute the directivity of a 10-element heterogeneous ULA consisting of cosine antenna elements with different power factors. The two elements at each end have power values of 1.5 while the inner elements have power values of 1.8.

Construct the heterogeneous array. Set the signal frequency to 1 GHz.

c = physconst('LightSpeed');
freq = 1e9;
ang = [30;0];
lambda = c/freq;

Create the cosine antenna elements.

myElement1 = phased.CosineAntennaElement;
myElement1.CosinePower = 1.5;
myElement2 = phased.CosineAntennaElement;
myElement2.CosinePower = 1.8;

Create the Heterogeneous ULA.

myArray = phased.HeterogeneousULA;
myArray.ElementSet = {myElement1,myElement2};
myArray.ElementIndices = [1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 ];
myArray.ElementSpacing = 0.5*lambda;

Create the steering vector and compute the directivity in the same direction as the steering vector.

w = steervec(getElementPosition(myArray)/lambda,ang);
d = directivity(myArray,freq,ang,'PropagationSpeed',c,...
    'Weights',w)
d = 17.0102

More About

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