# Rotate Image by Small Acute Angle

This example shows how to implement an image rotation algorithm for small acute angles for FPGA.

Image rotation is the movement of an image around a fixed point. It is one of the most common affine transforms and is fundamental to many computer vision applications like feature extraction and matching. This equation represents the affine transform that rotates new coordinates from original coordinates by rotation angle .

This implementation is based on the `imrotate`

(Image Processing Toolbox) function.

This example computes the transformation matrix for an angle in the range (–10, 0) and (0, 10) by using the `ComputeSmallAngleAffineTransform.m`

function. The transformation matrix returned by this function is an input to the hardware algorithm. The hardware algorithm performs an affine transform and calculates the output pixel intensities by using bilinear interpolation. This implementation does not require external DDR memory and instead uses the on-chip block RAM to store and resample the output pixel intensities.

### Image Rotation Algorithm

The image rotation algorithm uses a reverse mapping technique to map the pixel locations of the output rotated image to the pixels in the input image. This diagram shows the different stages of the algorithm.

**Compute Transformation** This stage computes transformation parameters using the input image dimensions and the angle of rotation, . The transformation parameters that this stage outputs include the output bounds and the transformation matrix . The bounds help compute the integer pixel coordinates of the output rotated image, and transforms the integer pixel coordinates in the output rotated image to corresponding coordinates of the input image.

**Affine Transform** An affine transform is a geometric transformation that translates a point in one image plane onto another image plane by preserving the images collinearity. Collinearity means that all points on a line in the input image still form that line after transformation. Image rotation, maps integer pixel coordinates in the output rotated image to the corresponding coordinates of the input image by using the transformation matrix, . If is an integer pixel coordinate in the rotated output image and is the corresponding coordinate of the input image, then this equation describes the transformation.

**Bilinear Interpolation** The rotation algorithm can produce coordinates that are noninteger values. To generate the intensity of pixels at each integer position, a resampling technique like interpolation must be used. This example uses bilinear interpolation to resample the image intensity values corresponding to the generated coordinates.

In the equation and the diagram, is the coordinate of the input pixel generated by the affine transform stage. , , , and are the four neighboring pixels, and and are the displacements of the target pixel from its neighboring pixels. This stage of the algorithm computes the weighted average of the four neighboring pixels by using this equation.

### HDL Implementation

This figure shows the top-level view of the `ImageRotationHDL`

model. The InputImage block imports the image from files. The Frame To Pixels block converts the input image frames to a pixel stream with a `pixelcontrol`

bus for input to the `ImageRotationHDLALgorithm`

subsystem. This subsystem rotates the input image by an angle that you can specify by using the mask of the Transform block. The Pixels To Frame block converts the stream of output pixels back to frames. The `ImageViewer`

subsystem displays the input frame and the corresponding rotated output.

open_system('ImageRotationHDL'); set(allchild(0),'Visible','off');

The `InitFcn`

callback of the example model computes by calling the `ComputeSmallAngleAffineTransform.m`

function. This function takes angle of rotation and input image dimensions as the input. You can set these values in the mask of the Transform block. Alternatively, you can generate your own transformation matrix (flattened to a 6-by-1 vector, because the last column of is redundant) and give it as an input to the `ImageRotationHDLAlgorithm`

subsystem.

In the `ImageRotationHDLAlgorithm`

subsystem, the `GenerateControl`

subsystem generates a control signal `pixelcontrol`

bus from the input **ctrl** bus depending upon the displacement parameter. The `CoordinateGeneration`

subsystem generates the row and column pixel coordinates of the output rotated image. It uses two HDL counters to generate the row and column coordinates. The `AffineTransform`

subsystem maps these coordinates onto their corresponding row and column coordinates, , of the input image.

The `AddressGeneration`

subsystem calculates the addresses of the four neighbors of required for interpolation. This subsystem also computes the parameters , , , and , which are used for bilinear interpolation.

The `Interpolation`

subsystem stores the pixel intensities of the input image in a memory. To calculate each rotated output pixel intensity, the subsystem reads the four neighbor pixel values and computes their weighted sum.

open_system('ImageRotationHDL/ImageRotationHDLAlgorithm','force');

### Affine Transformation

The HDL implementation of the affine transformation multiplies the coordinates *[u v 1]* with the transformation matrix, (flattened to a 6-by-1 vector, because the last column of is redundant). The `ComputeSmallAngleAffineTransform.m`

function, called in the `InitFcn`

callback of the model, generates the matrix. The `Transformation`

subsystem implements the matrix multiplication with Product blocks which multiply the integer coordinates of output image by each element of the matrix. For this operation, the is split from a vector into individual elements by using a Demux block.

open_system('ImageRotationHDL/ImageRotationHDLAlgorithm/AffineTransform','force');

### Address Generation

The `AddressGeneration`

subsystem takes the mapped coordinate of the input raw image as input and then calculates the displacement and of each pixel from its neighboring pixels. The subsystem also rounds the coordinates to the nearest integer toward negative infinity.

open_system('ImageRotationHDL/ImageRotationHDLAlgorithm/AddressGeneration','force');

The `AddressCalculation`

subsystem checks the coordinates against the bounds of the input images. If any coordinate is outside the image dimensions, that coordinate is capped to the boundary value for further processing. Next, the subsystem calculates the index of the address of each of the four neighborhood pixels in the CacheMemory block. The index represents the column of the cache. The subsystem finds the index for each address by using the even and odd nature of the incoming column and row coordinates, as determined by the Extract Bits block.

% ========================== % |Row || Col || Index || % ========================== % |Odd || Odd || 1 || % |Even || Odd || 2 || % |Odd || Even || 3 || % |Even || Even || 4 || % ==========================

The address of the neighborhood pixels is generated using this equation.

is the row coordinate and is the column coordinate. When is even, then . When is odd, then . When is even, then . When is odd, then .

The IndexChangeForMemoryAccess MATLAB Function block in the `AddressCalculation`

subsystem rearranges the addresses in increasing order of their indices. This operation ensures the correct fetching of data from the CacheMemory block. The addresses are given as input to the CacheMemory block, and , , and are passed to the `Interpolation`

subsystem.

The `OutOfBound`

subsystem checks whether the coordinates are out of bounds (that is, if any coordinate is outside the image dimensions). If the coordinate is out of bounds, the corresponding output pixel is set to an intensity value of 0.

After all of the addresses and their corresponding indices are generated, a Vector Concatenate block creates vectors of the addresses and indices.

### Interpolation

The `Interpolation`

subsystem is a For Each block which replicates its operation depending on the dimensions of the input pixel. For example, if the input is an RGB image, then the input pixel dimensions are 1-by-3, and the model includes 3 instances of this operation. Using the For Each block enables the model to support RGB input or grayscale input. The operation inside the For Each subsystem comprises two subsystems: `BilinearInterpolation`

and `CacheMemory`

.

open_system('ImageRotationHDL/ImageRotationHDLAlgorithm/Interpolation','force');

### Cache Memory

The `CacheMemory`

subsystem contains a Simple Dual Port RAM block. The subsystem buffers the input pixels to form `[Line 1 Pixel 1 | Line 2 Pixel 1 | Line 1 Pixel 2 | Line 2 Pixel 2]`

in the RAM. This configuration enables the algorithm to read all four neighboring pixels in one cycle. The required size of the cache memory is calculated from the *offset* output of the `ComputeSmallAngleAffineTransform.m`

function. The offset is the sum of maximum deviation and the first row map. The first row map is the maximum value of the input image row coordinate that corresponds to the first row of the output rotated image. The maximum deviation is the greatest difference between the maximum and minimum row coordinates for each row of the input image row map.

The `WriteControl`

subsystem forms vectors of incoming pixels, write enables, and write addresses. The `AddressGeneration`

subsystem provides a vector of read addresses. The vector of pixels that are read from the RAM becomes the input to the `BilinearInterpolation`

subsystem.

open_system('ImageRotationHDL/ImageRotationHDLAlgorithm/Interpolation/CacheMemory','force');

### Bilinear Interpolation

The `BilinearInterpolation`

subsystem rearranges the vector of read pixels from the cache to their original indices. Then, the `BilinearInterpolationEquation`

subsystem calculates a weighted sum of the neighborhood pixels by using the bilinear interpolation equation mentioned in the Image Rotation Algorithm section. The result of the interpolation is the value of the output rotated pixel.

open_system('ImageRotationHDL/ImageRotationHDLAlgorithm/Interpolation/BilinearInterpolation','force');

### Simulation and Results

This example uses a 480p RGB input image. The input pixels use the `uint8`

data type. The example supports either grayscale or RGB input images. This example supports acute angles in the range (–10, 0) and (0, 10). Angles greater than 10 degrees require much higher BRAM resources.

This figure shows the input image and the corresponding output image rotated by an angle of 7 degrees. The results of the `ImageRotationHDL`

model for this input matches the output of the `imrotate`

function.

To check and generate the HDL code referenced in this example, you must have the HDL Coder™ product.

To generate the HDL code, enter this command.

```
makehdl('ImageRotationHDL/ImageRotationHDLAlgorithm')
```

To generate the test bench, enter this command.

```
makehdltb('ImageRotationHDL/ImageRotationHDLAlgorithm')
```

This design was synthesized using AMD® Vivado® for the ZC706 device and met a timing requirement of over 200 MHz. This table shows the resource utilization for the HDL subsystem.

% =============================================================== % |Model Name || ImageRotationHDL || % =============================================================== % |Input Image Resolution || 480 x 640 || % |LUT || 2238 || % |FF || 2570 || % |BRAM || 96 || % |Total DSP Blocks || 94 || % ===============================================================