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LDPC Encode and Decode of Streaming Data

This example shows how to simulate the NR LDPC Encoder and NR LDPC Decoder Simulink® blocks and compare the hardware-optimized results with the results from the 5G Toolbox™ functions. These blocks support scalar and vector inputs. The NR LDPC Decoder block enables you to select either Min-sum or Normalized min-sum algorithm for decoding operation.

Generate Input Data for Encoder

Choose a series of input values for bgn and liftingSize according to the 5G NR standard. Generate the corresponding input vectors for the selected base graph number (bgn) and liftingSize values. Generate random frames of input data and convert them to Boolean data and control signal that indicates the frame boundaries. encFrameGap accommodates the latency of the NR LDPC Encoder block for bgn and liftingSize values. Use the nextFrame signal to determine when the block is ready to accept the start of the next input frame.

bgn         = [0; 1; 1; 0];
liftingSize = [4; 384; 144; 208];
numFrames = 4;
serial = false; % {false,true};

encbgnIn = [];encliftingSizeIn = [];
msg = {numFrames};
K =[];N = [];
encSampleIn = [];encStartIn = [];encEndIn = [];encValidIn = [];
encFrameGap = 2500;
for ii = 1:numFrames
    if bgn(ii) == 0
        K(ii) = 22;
        N(ii) = 66;
    else
        K(ii) = 10;
        N(ii) = 50;
    end
    frameLen = liftingSize(ii) * K(ii);
    msg{ii} = randi([0 1],1,frameLen);
    if serial
    len = K(ii) * liftingSize(ii);
    encFrameGap = liftingSize(ii) * N(ii) + 2500;
    else
    len = K(ii) * ceil(liftingSize(ii)/64); %#ok<*UNRCH>
    encFrameGap = 2500;
    end

    encIn = ldpc_dataFormation(msg{ii},liftingSize(ii),K(ii),serial);

    encSampleIn = logical([encSampleIn encIn zeros(size(encIn,1),encFrameGap)]); %#ok<*AGROW>
    encStartIn = logical([encStartIn  1  zeros(1,len-1)  zeros(1,encFrameGap)]);
    encEndIn = logical([encEndIn    zeros(1,len-1) 1   zeros(1,encFrameGap)]);
    encValidIn = logical([encValidIn    ones(1,len)      zeros(1,encFrameGap)]);
    encbgnIn = logical([encbgnIn   repmat(bgn(ii),1,len) zeros(1,encFrameGap)]);
    encliftingSizeIn = uint16([encliftingSizeIn repmat(liftingSize(ii),1,len) zeros(1,encFrameGap)]);
end

encSampleIn = timeseries(logical(encSampleIn'));

sampleTime = 1;
simTime = length(encValidIn);   %#ok<NASGU>

Run Encoder Model

The HDL Algorithm subsystem contains the NR LDPC Encoder block. Running the model imports the input signal variables encSampleIn, encStartIn, encEndIn, encValidIn, encbgnIn, encliftingSizeIn, sampleTime, and simTime and exports sampleOut and ctrlOut variables to the MATLAB® workspace.

open_system('NRLDPCEncoderHDL');
encOut = sim('NRLDPCEncoderHDL');

Verify Encoder Results

Convert the streaming data output of the block to frames and then compare them with the output of the nrLDPCEncode function.

startIdx = find(encOut.ctrlOut.start.Data);
endIdx = find(encOut.ctrlOut.end.Data);

for ii = 1:numFrames
    encHDL{ii} = ldpc_dataExtraction(encOut.sampleOut.Data,liftingSize(ii),startIdx(ii),endIdx(ii),N(ii),serial); %#ok<*SAGROW>
    encRef = nrLDPCEncode(msg{ii}',bgn(ii)+1);
    error = sum(abs(encRef - encHDL{ii}));
    fprintf(['Encoded Frame %d: Behavioral and ' ...
        'HDL simulation differ by %d bits\n'],ii,error);
end
Encoded Frame 1: Behavioral and HDL simulation differ by 0 bits
Encoded Frame 2: Behavioral and HDL simulation differ by 0 bits
Encoded Frame 3: Behavioral and HDL simulation differ by 0 bits
Encoded Frame 4: Behavioral and HDL simulation differ by 0 bits

Generate Input Data for Decoder

Use the encoded data from the NR LDPC Encoder block to generate input log-likelihood ratio (LLR) values for the NR LDPC Decoder block. Use channel, modulator, and demodulator system objects to add some noise to the signal. Again, create vectors of bgn and liftingSize and convert the frames of data to LLRs with a control signal that indicates the frame boundaries. decFrameGap accommodates the latency of the NR LDPC Decoder block for bgn, liftingSize, and number of iterations. Use the nextFrame signal to determine when the block is ready to accept the start of the next input frame.

nVar = 1.2;
chan = comm.AWGNChannel('NoiseMethod','Variance','Variance',nVar);
bpskMod = comm.BPSKModulator;
bpskDemod = comm.BPSKDemodulator('DecisionMethod', ...
    'Approximate log-likelihood ratio','Variance',nVar);

algo = 'Normalized min-sum'; %{ Min-sum, 'Normalized min-sum' };
if strcmpi(algo,'Min-sum')
    alpha = 1;
else
    alpha = 0.75;
end

numIter = 8;
decbgnIn = [];decliftingSizeIn = [];
rxLLR = {numFrames};
decSampleIn = [];decStartIn = [];decEndIn = [];decValidIn = [];

for ii=1:numFrames
    mod = bpskMod(double(encHDL{ii}));
    rSig = chan(mod);
    rxLLR{ii} = fi(bpskDemod(rSig),1,6,0);

    if serial
        len = N(ii)* liftingSize(ii);
        decFrameGap = numIter *7000 + liftingSize(ii) * K(ii);
     else
        len = N(ii)* ceil(liftingSize(ii)/64);
        decFrameGap = numIter *1200;
     end

    decIn = ldpc_dataFormation(rxLLR{ii}',liftingSize(ii),N(ii),serial);

    decSampleIn = [decSampleIn decIn zeros(size(decIn,1),decFrameGap)]; %#ok<*AGROW>
    decStartIn = logical([decStartIn  1  zeros(1,len-1)  zeros(1,decFrameGap)]);
    decEndIn = logical([decEndIn    zeros(1,len-1) 1   zeros(1,decFrameGap)]);
    decValidIn = logical([decValidIn    ones(1,len)      zeros(1,decFrameGap)]);
    decbgnIn = logical([decbgnIn   repmat(bgn(ii),1,len) zeros(1,decFrameGap)]);
    decliftingSizeIn = uint16([decliftingSizeIn repmat(liftingSize(ii),1,len) zeros(1,decFrameGap)]);
end

decSampleIn = timeseries(fi(decSampleIn',1,6,0));

simTime = length(decValidIn);

Run Decoder Model

The HDL Algorithm subsystem contains the NR LDPC Decoder block. Running the model imports the input signal variables decSampleIn, decStartIn, decEndIn, decValidIn, decbgnIn, decliftingSizeIn, numIter, sampleTime, and simTime and exports a stream of decoded output samples sampleOut along with control signal ctrlOut to the MATLAB workspace.

open_system('NRLDPCDecoderHDL');
if alpha ~= 1
    set_param('NRLDPCDecoderHDL/HDL Algorithm/NR LDPC Decoder','Algorithm','Normalized min-sum');
else
    set_param('NRLDPCDecoderHDL/HDL Algorithm/NR LDPC Decoder','Algorithm','Min-sum');
end
decOut = sim('NRLDPCDecoderHDL');

Verify Decoder Results

Convert the streaming data output of the block to frames and then compare them with the output of the nrLDPCDecode function.

startIdx = find(decOut.ctrlOut.start.Data);
endIdx = find(decOut.ctrlOut.end.Data);

for ii = 1:numFrames
   decHDL{ii} = ldpc_dataExtraction(decOut.sampleOut.Data,liftingSize(ii),startIdx(ii),endIdx(ii),K(ii),serial); %#ok<*SAGROW>
   decRef = nrLDPCDecode(double(rxLLR{ii}),bgn(ii)+1,numIter, 'Algorithm','Normalized min-sum','ScalingFactor',alpha,...
            'Termination','max');
   error = sum(abs(double(decRef) - decHDL{ii}));
   fprintf(['Decoded Frame %d: Behavioral and ' ...
        'HDL simulation differ by %d bits\n'],ii,error);
end
Decoded Frame 1: Behavioral and HDL simulation differ by 0 bits
Decoded Frame 2: Behavioral and HDL simulation differ by 0 bits
Decoded Frame 3: Behavioral and HDL simulation differ by 0 bits
Decoded Frame 4: Behavioral and HDL simulation differ by 0 bits

See Also

Blocks

Functions