MathWorks suggested the following procedure, which works well for me (R2017b). Quoting from their email:
Tuning a high-DPI Linux system requires two steps
- Setting the MATLAB scale factor
- Calibrating the system's DPI
The MATLAB scale factor affects MATLAB desktop and the size/position of windows. The system DPI determines the scale and font size of axes and labels. To set the MATLAB scale factor, please use the following MATLAB commands:
>> s = settings;s.matlab.desktop.DisplayScaleFactor
>> s.matlab.desktop.DisplayScaleFactor.PersonalValue = 1.5
To calibrate the system DPI to match the scale facto, please use the following terminal commands :
resolution: 96x96 dots per inch
The DPI value chosen should be the resolution found with xdpyinfo multiplied by the MATLAB scale factor that was set. In the example, 96 × 1.5 = 144.
MATLAB must be restarted after Step 2.