When trying to install the R2017b Updates the installation process terminates with the message:
Installation failed 
There is no other clear indicator of what may be causing the issue. How can I resolve the issue?
If the updater installation log file does not show any clear indicator of what is causing the issue, you will want to do a search for "skipping" in the log file.
For example, in several cases there are mentions of the Simulink Real Time Toolbox being skipped:
Need to update: toolbox/slrt/target/kernel/XXXXX Warning: File on disk does not match expected meta data Warning: meta size: 1526446 meta time: 1503595432 (orig) Warning: meta size: 1526449 meta time: 1512792246 (new) Warning: disk size: 1527326 disk time: 1521632126 Warning: Skipping update
These usually means that the file being looked at was modified. The recommended solution to this is to reinstall the toolbox and then apply the update to a clean installation.