Asked by D_coder
on 14 Sep 2018 at 5:55

I am working on saving computations and speeding up my Matlab code. Here's what I do Perform thresholding on an image and make most of its components as zero run it inside a loop with element by element multiplication with another matrix(full matrix) of the same size

Here is a detailed version of what I am doing

**CASE I:When I dont avoid multiplication with zeros**

matrix(matrix<threshold) = 0 ; while the condition is true matrix = matrix.*phase; other lines of code ; end

**Result:** **From MATLAB profiler I see that matrix = matrix.*phase; takes 80 seconds**

**CASE II:When I avoid multiplication with zeros using SPARSE**

matrix(matrix<threshold) = 0 ; matrix = sparse(matrix); while the condition is true matrix = matrix.*phase; other lines of code ; end

**Result: From MATLAB profiler I see that matrix = matrix.*phase takes 110 seconds**

**CASE III:When I avoid multiplication with zeros using a mask**

matrix(matrix<threshold) = 0 ; mask = matrix~=0; while the condition is true matrix(mask) = matrix(mask).*phase(mask); other lines of code ; end

**Result:** **From MATLAB profiler I see that matrix = matrix.*phase takes 130 seconds**

Why is my code slow if I try to avoid multiplications with zeros? Since the matrix after thresholding has 75% zeros my speed should be up by 75% as I am avoiding multiplication with zeros. But my time is increased Is there any other way to achieve avoiding multiplication with zeros and speeding up of the code?

**MY PRIORITY IS TO SPEED UP THE CODE EXECUTION AND SAVE MUTLIPLICATIONS**

Answer by Bruno Luong
on 15 Sep 2018 at 8:35

Edited by Bruno Luong
on 15 Sep 2018 at 8:41

Accepted Answer

Instead of matrix(mask) = matrix(mask).*phase(mask)

you might work on index

idx = find(mask & matrix~=0); while ... matrix(idx) = matrix(idx).*phase(idx); end

You might want to compute phase(idx) outside the loop if they do not change, or update idx if the matrix elements become zero. As you don't give any detail, we have no idea if those are applicable for you.

If matrix does not share any copy, you might do element inplace replacement using MEX.

D_coder
on 16 Sep 2018 at 20:20

D_coder
on 20 Sep 2018 at 7:30

how does the accumarray function that you wrote changes when I want to do sum of individual columns instead of individual rows.The idx find creates a problem here as it finds index column wise

a = [ 0 0 3 0; 2 5 0 1;0 0 0 3]; b = [ 4 3 2 1; 5 3 6 2; 7 1 -2 3]; [r c] = size(a); prod = a.*b; row_sum = sum(prod,2);%must have same result as sum_accum idx = find(a); ared = a(idx); bred = b(idx); cred = ared.*bred; row = ceil(idx/c); sum_accum = accumarray(row,cred,[r 1]);%must have same result as row_sum both sum_accum and row_sum give different result.

Bruno Luong
on 20 Sep 2018 at 8:11

a = [ 0 0 3 0; 2 5 0 1; 0 0 0 3]; b = [ 4 3 2 1; 5 3 6 2; 7 1 -2 3]; idx = find(a)

[m,n] = size(a); col = floor((idx-1)/m)+1; sumcol = accumarray(col,a(idx).*b(idx)).' % check prod = a.*b; sum(prod,1)

row = mod((idx-1),m)+1; sumrow = accumarray(row,a(idx).*b(idx)) % check sum(prod,2)

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Answer by James Tursa
on 15 Sep 2018 at 0:15

Edited by James Tursa
on 15 Sep 2018 at 0:23

Try this simple C mex routine. It avoids the overhead you are creating with your sparse alternate stuff. Could maybe be improved further by multi-threading for large variables but it is currently not coded that way. (Caution, no input checking so it will crash MATLAB if not used properly)

/* * File: times_threshold.c * * C = times_threshold(A,B,threshold) does * * C = A .* B but only where A > threshold (C = 0 in the other spots) * * A = full real double variable * B = full real double variable (same size as A) * C = full real double variable (same size as A) * threshold = numeric scalar * * CAUTION: Bare bones with no argument checking! Will crash MATLAB if the * inputs are not exactly as expected. */

#include "mex.h" void mexFunction( int nlhs, mxArray *plhs[], int nrhs, const mxArray *prhs[]) { double *Apr, *Bpr, *Cpr; double threshold; mwSize n;

n = mxGetNumberOfElements(prhs[0]); plhs[0] = mxCreateNumericArray(mxGetNumberOfDimensions(prhs[0]), mxGetDimensions(prhs[0]), mxDOUBLE_CLASS, mxREAL); Apr = mxGetPr(prhs[0]); Bpr = mxGetPr(prhs[1]); Cpr = mxGetPr(plhs[0]); threshold = mxGetScalar(prhs[2]); while( n-- ) { if( *Apr > threshold ) { *Cpr = *Apr * *Bpr; } Apr++; Bpr++; Cpr++; } }

Walter Roberson
on 15 Sep 2018 at 20:37

James's code combines the threshold operation for efficiency.

D_coder
on 15 Sep 2018 at 22:18

it wont be efficient as in my case i calculate threshold only once

James Tursa
on 16 Sep 2018 at 6:57

What code are you using that is "more efficient" than the mex routine?

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Answer by Walter Roberson
on 15 Sep 2018 at 0:01

matrix<threshold and matrix~=0 both generate values the same size as matrix. matrix(mask) and phase(mask) and matrix(mask).*phase(mask) generate values with the same number of entries as the number of non-zero values in mask. Those variables get stored in memory and have to be processed.

At the MATLAB level, matrix = matrix.*phase gets dispatched to the high performance libraries that operate on multiple cores. One temporary value the same size as matrix would be involved to hold the results.

The high performance libraries would probably be scheduling multiple multiplies simultaneously, perhaps with SIMD type instructions, possibly able to graduate one result per cycle, or whatever the maximum graduation rate is.

When you select part of the array it has to be conditionally moved to other memory locations, and then that array processed, and then selectively moved back. That involves memory bandwidth and comparisons and loops. Those cost, and the tradeoffs are potentially just not worth the effort compared to SIMD or vector instructions.

You would face different tradeoffs in your FPGA.

To reduce multiplications, it might be worth creating an explicit loop, along the lines of

new_matrix = zeros(size(matrix)); for idx = 1 : numel(matrix) M = matrix(idx); P = phase(idx); if M && P; new_matrix(idx) = M .* P; end

If phase is certain to be non-zero then

new_matrix = zeros(size(matrix)); for idx = 1 : numel(matrix) M = matrix(idx); if M; new_matrix(idx) = M .* phase(idx); end

D_coder
on 15 Sep 2018 at 6:20

Walter Roberson
on 15 Sep 2018 at 7:51

D_coder
on 15 Sep 2018 at 17:01

this is not working it is taking very long time

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## 4 Comments

## Greg (view profile)

Direct link to this comment:https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/answers/418975-sparse-and-binary-mask#comment_610594

In case II, is

phasealso sparse, or full?## D_coder (view profile)

Direct link to this comment:https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/answers/418975-sparse-and-binary-mask#comment_610597

phase is full matrix

## James Tursa (view profile)

Direct link to this comment:https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/answers/418975-sparse-and-binary-mask#comment_610598

What is the class of your image variable? Do you have a supported C compiler installed for a mex routine?

## D_coder (view profile)

Direct link to this comment:https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/answers/418975-sparse-and-binary-mask#comment_610607

class is double,C compiler is present

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