Deployed components generated from MATLAB Compiler or its related products do not improve performance of MATLAB code. This is because MATLAB Compiler works by running the same MATLAB code (although encrypted) on an installed runtime, and does not change the nature of the code. As such, the deployed MATLAB code will run with similar speed as if running on MATLAB desktop.
However, often there are overheads associated with deployed components. If you deploy a standalone executable, there will be a startup delay while the executable is starting up and the runtime is loaded. If you deploy a library, there may be overhead associated with data marshaling.
The main purpose of the MATLAB Compiler products is to provide deployment options for customers by creating standalone executables or creating libraries that can be loaded into other frameworks. For improving speed, using MATLAB Coder products, MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox products or tuning your MATLAB code specifically for performance are better options.